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1 5 *7S GjS %5 59-C5970 

Genetic studies of genius 

I 4 -** gifted group at nil-life 































The research studies reported in this volume have been financed by 
grants-in-aid and anonymous gifts totaling close to $250,000. 

The greater part of the expenses incurred between 1921 and 1929 
were defrayed by the Commonwealth Fund of New York City. Stan- 
ford University, through the Thomas Welton Stanford Fund, financed 
the follow-up study of 1936-37 and contributed minor supplementary- 
funds as needed between 1928 and 1936. 

The Carnegie Corporation of New York provided two grants which 
made possible the extensive follow-up of 1939-41 and the statistical 
work on the resulting data between 1941 and 1943. The National Re- 
search Council, through its Committee for Research on Problems of 
Sex, financed the studies on marital adjustments reported in Volume 
IV, and the Columbia Foundation of San Francisco provided three 
annual grants which met approximately three-fourths of the expenses 
incurred between 1943 and 1946 in continued follow-up of the subjects 
and analysis of data. Annual grants from the Marsden Foundation of 
Palm Springs from 1946 to 1953 provided partial support of the study 
during those years. 

Three grants from the Carnegie Corporation from 1949 to 1951 and 
a grant from the Rockefeller Corporation in 1950 financed the 1950-52 
follow-up investigation. A research contract from the Office of Naval 
Research in 1951 defrayed the expenses of a study of scientists and non- 
scientists in the gifted group. 

In 1955 a grant from the Fund for the Advancement of Education 
made possible the mail follow-up of that year and the preparation of 
much of the data for this volume. 

Material assistance has been provided from time to time by gifts 
from various individual donors including several parents of the gifted 
subjects, a few of the subjects themselves, the owner of a well-known 
magazine, and other anonymous donors. 

To all these benefactors, grateful acknowledgment of their support 
is made. 

By special arrangement, all royalties from the publications result- 
ing from this study have been assigned to the research funds. 


This report on the further development of the Terman Gifted Group 
brings them into mid-life. It provides a concise summary of the main 
findings reported in previous volumes, and then presents the data ob- 
tained in the field and mail follow-up studies that were completed in 
1955. It tells, dramatically but objectively, what thirty-five years of liv- 
ing have done to those gifted eleven-year-olds whose characteristics 
were first described in Volume I of this series. If the interim evidence 
examined here leads to any one salient conclusion, it is that the end of 
their intellectual and social vigor is not yet in sight. Indeed, if ever 
there was excitement in figures, it is in those that form the data for this 
skillfully presented and gracefully written report of what these men and 
women look like in their maturity. For many a student of contemporary 
society, this volume will be the pay-off, the best and most informative 
of the series of Genetic Studies of Genius. 

Professor Terman began this study in 1921, when he was in his 
mid-forties, and most of the children were about eleven. When he died 
near the end of his eightieth year, the "children" had reached their mid- 
forties themselves, and Professor Terman had maintained continuous 
data collection from them for more than three decades. In this time, he 
conducted three major field studies, several mail follow-ups, tested a 
large proportion of the group's offspring, and maintained such close 
personal relationships with the nearly 1,500 members of the group that 
95 percent of them were still active research subjects. 

The present volume was fully planned and the data analysis com- 
pleted before Professor Terman's death. He had written initial drafts 
of Chapters I, II, III, and IX, and had made notes for Chapter XI ; 
Mrs. Oden wrote the others, and prepared the final manuscript for 
publication. Thus ends a personal collaboration of many years and many 
volumes. It was a fortunate one, and one for which the collaborators' 
colleagues render much thanks. 

What does not end is the lives and careers and our study of the 
gifted group. With data already in hand, Mrs. Oden will continue the 
analysis of developmental trends, including a number of investigations 
that had been projected by Professor Terman. The body of information 
provided by the gifted group to date is extremely valuable, not only for 


the findings already reported, but for analyses yet to be made. The 
future promises information of equal importance. Professor Terman 
foresaw this clearly, and before his death he completed arrangements 
with Stanford University for the continuing maintenance of the integ- 
rity and confidentiality of the files. He designated his son, Dr. Fred- 
erick E. Terman, now Provost of the University, and his long-time col- 
league, Dr. Quinn McNemar, Professor of Psychology at Stanford, 
as the official custodians. To me, he delegated the administrative re- 
sponsibility for planning such continuing research operations with the 
group as may seem appropriate. To assist in this enterprise, he assigned 
funds from his estate that will provide partial support for maintaining 
the files for several years. 

In this connection, a word is in order. Professor Terman began 
the project with a grant from the Commonwealth Fund in 192L Since 
then, half a dozen other foundations and government agencies have 
contributed financial support. The total expended to date has been 
approximately a quarter million dollars. The largest single donor was 
Professor Terman himself, who provided more than one-fifth of the 
total cost by direct gift. In addition, he and his co-authors assigned to 
the study all royalties from their publications relating to the study. 

And so we reach the end of one stage in this extraordinary research 
enterprise. When Professor Terman came to Stanford in 1910, as an 
assistant professor of education, the scientific study of the intellect had 
scarcely begun. In Paris, Alfred Binet had constructed an ingenious 
test for measuring academic ability in school children; at Columbia 
University's Teachers College, E. L. Thorndike had begun work on 
the measurement of school achievement. But it remained for Lewis 
Terman to conceive the development of a rigorous intelligence test 
that could select the ablest children and thus allow society to focus its 
full educative power on developing their potential. In 1916, Terman 
published the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon test. In the last 
years of World War I, he was a prime mover in the construction of the 
Army Alpha and Beta tests. After the war, with both individual and 
group tests available, he turned to the problem that had enthralled him 
ever since his graduate student days at Clark University. Although 
he made two useful excursions into other fields the measurement of 
masculinity-femininity and of marital happiness his main concern for 
the rest of his life was the research on gifted children. 

What he started, now remains to be finished. Science is cumulative 


by its very nature, but only among the chroniclers of the stars and the 
waters have such prolonged studies of individual objects been made 
heretofore. We can be grateful for the courage and vision of the man 
who finally broke the barrier of the limited lifetime alloted to any one 
researcher, and got under way a study of man that will encompass the 
span of the subjects' lives, not just those of the researchers. So Pro- 
fessor Terman has bowed out, and this is the last interim report in 
which he will have participated personally. Certainly there will be other 
replacements in the list of our research personnel before the final vol- 
ume of this series can be written. On actuarial grounds, there is con- 
siderable likelihood that the last of Terman's Gifted Children will not 
have yielded his last report to the files before the year 2010 ! 

Stanford University 
January 10, 1959 


This is the fifth volume in the Genetic Studies of Genius series and 
the fourth concerned with the longitudinal study of gifted children 
initiated by Lewis M. Terman in 1921.* As this report is being com- 
pleted in the summer of 1958, more than 35 years have elapsed since the 
investigation was undertaken, and more than one and one-half years 
have passed since the death of Dr. Terman. 

His imagination and vision, his fortitude and perseverance, his per- 
suasiveness and charm all these enabled him to follow the careers of 
this same group of subjects continuously for three and one-half decades 
until his death. It was due, in large measure, to the human qualities 
of Dr. Terman that his study of gifted children grew into a very close 
personal relationship between him and the members of his group a 
relationship that has been maintained throughout the years. Always 
active in the research, he was able, after his retirement as head of the 
Psychology Department in 1942, to give it his full attention. His affec- 
tion for the group is shown in the warm and personal tone of the follow- 
up letters, even the "form" letters, which bore the salutation To my 
gifted "children" the quotation marks added in recognition of their 
adult status. It happens that the gifted children turned out, in one way 
or another, to be gifted adults, but if they had not, Dr. Terman's affec- 
tion for them would have been no less. He repeatedly expressed, and 
not infrequently was called on to prove, his deep personal interest in 
each subject. As one of his letters accompanying a questionnaire put it, 
"although the published reports will be largely statistical, I want you 
to know that each of you is to me a real person and not just another 

This study is unique in a number of ways : the many years it has 
continued, the vast amount of immensely valuable data collected, the 
zeal with which the inviolability of the records has been safeguarded 
and the confidences of the subjects respected, the enduring friendship 
and loyalty of the group, and their unparalleled cooperation. The fact 
that 95 percent of the group are still actively participating in the study, 
a striking manifestation of the rapport between investigator and sub- 

* Vol. II of the series by Catharine M. Cox was titled Early ^Mental Traits of 
Three Hundred Geniuses 5 and is a collateral study dealing with Historical geniuses. 


jects, strengthens the validity of the findings. The debt of gratitude 
owed the subjects and their parents can never be adequately expressed. 

The research has yielded documentary evidence that the gifted 
child is far more apt to become the intellectually superior, vocationally 
successful, well-adjusted adult than will the average. These findings 
have tremendous importance for education and it is a source of satis- 
faction to know that this study has contributed to the present interest 
in better educational provisions for gifted children everywhere. Dr. 
Terman's work stands as a landmark in the identification of superior 
mental ability and the factors that make for its effective utilization. 

Another phenomenon of the study has been the constancy and devo- 
tion of those who have collaborated as assistants and consultants 
testimony to Dr. Terman's gift for friendship, his generosity of spirit, 
loyalty and understanding. He has paid tribute in the previous volumes 
of this series to those who assisted him in the various phases of the 
study. The field study of 1950-52 was carried out by Nancy Bayley, 
Helen Marshall, Alice Leahy Shea, Ellen Sullivan, and myself. Dr. 
Marshall, who with Dr. Florence Goodenough conducted the original 
search for subjects in 192122, has the distinction of having worked 
in each follow-up investigation. Dr. Bayley and Dr. Sullivan had both 
assisted in the follow-up of 1939-40 and Dr. Shea had assisted in the 
field study of 1927-28. In an investigation in which success depends 
so much on personal relationships, the role of the field worker is an 
important one, and the study was fortunate that such experienced and 
highly qualified persons as Dr. Bayley, Dr. Marshall, Dr. Sullivan, and 
Dr. Shea were willing to take leaves of absence from their regular posi- 
tions to assist in these follow-up studies. 

Although I did not have the privilege of working on the initial in- 
vestigation of 1921-22, 1 had known Dr. Terman even before that date 
in my student days. When he engaged me as one of his assistants in 
1927 to help with the first field follow-up of the gifted group, it was 
the beginning of a long and close association. It is difficult to express 
or interpret in words the many intangible effects of this association. 
The inspiration, the intellectual stimulation, the new frontiers explored, 
the wise counsel, the warm friendship all these were among the re- 
wards of working with such a man. 

Among those to whom the more recent phases of the study owe 
much are Dr. Olga W. McNemar, who assisted in the data analysis and 
preparation of reports between 1943 and 1949 and who was the chief 


collaborator with Dr. Terman in a study of scientists and nonscientists 
in the gifted group "which -was made in 195152. Dr. Quinn Me- 
Nemar, who has been close to all of Dr. Terman's researches, has served 
as consultant on the gifted study for many years and has contributed 
constructive help on statistical problems growing out of the research. 

Dr. Marian Ballin gave important statistical help in preparing" the 
data for this volume. 

Mrs. Babette Doyle, between the years 1947 and 1956, and Mrs. 
Shiela Buckholtz, from 1952 to the present, have each rendered in- 
valuable assistance in the dual capacity of secretary and research assist- 
ant. In addition I am personally indebted to each for her help in the 
preparation of this manuscript through careful reading, criticism, and 
suggestions for improvement. 

Finally, I am profoundly grateful to Dr. Robert Sears not only for 
his critical reading of the manuscript but also for his encouragement 
and faith -when, with the loss of Dr. Terman, the responsibility for 
the completion of this volume fell to me. I have tried to make it as 
nearly as possible the book that Dr. Terman himself would have written. 
Lacking his grace and ease of expression as well as his wisdom and 
experience, I could not hope to succeed entirely. To whatever extent 
the goal has been achieved, special credit is due Mrs. Buckholtz, Mrs. 
Doyle, and Dr. Sears. 

















INDEX 181 



Many philosophers and scientists from Plato and Aristotle to the 
present day have recognized that a nation's resources of superior talent 
are the most precious it can have. A number of factors, however, have 
operated to postpone until recent years the inauguration of research in 
this field. Among these are : ( 1 ) the influence of long-current beliefs 
regarding the essential nature of the genius, long regarded as qualita- 
tively set off from the rest of mankind and not to be explained by the 
natural laws of human behavior ; (2) the widespread superstition that 
intellectual precocity is pathological; and (3) the growth of pseudo- 
democratic sentiments that have tended to encourage attitudes unfavor- 
able to a just appreciation of individual differences in human endow- 

The senior author's first exploration into the problems posed by 
intellectual differences occurred over a half-century ago when, as a 
graduate student, he made an experimental study of two small con- 
trasting groups of bright and dull children. 34 * His interest was height- 
ened a few years later when, in standardizing the 1916 Stanford-Binet 
Intelligence Scale, he located and studied about a hundred children 
whose IQ's were above 130. He then decided to launch, at the first 
opportunity, a lag-scale m mYStig-q -h'nti Jaij^ie^h^ 
personality gaits ofjjarge g^^ 

by tallow-up studt^^ such children tend 

tolSecome. It was obvious that no intelligent program for training the 
gifted child could be laid down until the answers to these questions 
had been found. 

In 1921 a generous grant from the Commonwealth Fund of New 
York City made possible the realization of this ambition. The project 
as outlined called for the sifting of a school population of a quarter- 

* Numerals refer to numbered and alphabetically arranged references on pages 
153 ff. 


million in order to locate a thousand or more of highest IQ. The sub- 
jects thus selected were to be given a variety of psychological, physical, 
and scholastic tests and were then to be followed as far as possible into 
adult life. The investigation was expected to tell us (1) what intel- 
lectually superior children are like as children ; (2) how well they turn 
out; and (3) what are some of the factors that influence their later 


The problem was to discover in the schools of California a thou- 
sand or more subjects with IQ's that would place them well within the 
highest one percent of the school population. For financial reasons it 
was not possible to give mental tests to the entire school population. 
Instead, the search was limited chiefly to the larger and medium-sized 
urban areas. The following procedures were used to identify the chil- 
dren of highest IQ in the areas surveyed. 

In grades three to eight each classroom teacher filled out a blank 
which called for the name of the brightest child in the room, the second 
brightest, the third brightest, and the youngest. The children thus 
nominated in a particular school building were then brought together 
and given a group intelligence test (National Intelligence Test, Scale 
B). Those who scored promisingly high on the group test were given 
an individual examination on the Stanford-Binet test. In grades below 
the third, only the Stanford-Binet test was given to those nominated 
by the teacher, since no suitable group test was available at that time 
for younger children. In high schools the selection of subjects was 
based on the Terman Group Test scores of students nominated by the 
teachers as being among the brightest in their respective classes. 

Checks made on the method of selection indicated that the method 
used was identifying close to 90 percent of all who could have qualified. 
The proportion was high enough to insure that the group selected for 
study constituted a reasonably unbiased sampling and that whatever 
traits were typical of these children would be reasonably typical of gifted 
children in any comparable school population. The original criterion 
for inclusion for the Binet-tested subjects was an IQ of 140 or above, 
but for various reasons sixty-five subjects were included in the IQ 
range of 135 to 139. Most of those below 140 IQ were either siblings 
of subjects already admitted to the group or were older subjects whose 
scores were deemed to be spuriously low because of insufficient top in 


the 1916 Stanford-Binet. The standard set was purely arbitrary and 
was intended to insure that the subjects included for study should be 
in the highest 1 percent of the school population in general intelligence 
as measured by the test used. Its choice was not based on any assump- 
tion that children above this IQ level are potential geniuses. The stand- 
ards for admission on the Terman Group Test and other group tests 
also required the subject to score within the top 1 percent of the general 
school population on which the norms were established. 

The nature and results of the early stages of the investigation have 
been fully described in an earlier publication 39 and will be summarized 
in the following pages. 


The gifted subjects whose careers we have followed number, in all, 
1,528 (857 males and 671 females). This figure includes a few who 
were selected before 1921, and 58 who were not selected until the field 
study of 1927-28. These 58 were siblings of previously selected sub- 
jects who were too young to test at the time of the main search for 
subjects in 1921-22. 

The Binet-tested group made up more than two-thirds of the total 
and included 1,070 subjects (577 boys and 493 girls). Selected by the 
Terman Group Test given in high schools were 428 subjects (265 boys 
and 163 girls). The remaining 30 subjects were chosen on the basis 
of scores on the National Intelligence Test or the Army Alpha Test.* 
The average age of the total group at the time of selection was 1 1 years ; 
the Binet-tested subjects averaged 9.7 years and those qualifying on 
a group test, 15.2 years. 

The mean IQ of subjects who were given the Stanford-Binet was 
151 .5 for the boys, 150.4 for the girls, and 151 .0 for the sexes com- 
bined. The IQ range was from 135 to 200 with 77 subjects scoring 
at IQ 170 or higher. The mean IQ of high-school subjects tested by 
the Terman Group Test was 142.6 and the range of IQ was from 
135 to 169. These figures, however, were estimates based upon norms 
which were inadequate and were perhaps 8 or 10 IQ points too low. 
Later follow-up of the high-school subjects indicated that they were 
as highly selected as the Binet-tested group. 

* This group includes 24 pre-high-school pupils with National Intelligence Test 
scores and 6 high-school students with Army Alpha Test scores who were not tested 
in the formal search for subjects, but were brought to the attention of the study by 
their schools and included because of their very high test scores. 


The sex ratio among the Binet-tested subjects was approximately 
116 boys to 100 girls. The much higher sex ratio for the high-school 
subjects roughly 160 boys to 100 girls is probably due to the less 
systematic procedures used in locating gifted subjects in the high 
schools. A sex ratio of 116 males to 100 females may be fully accounted 
for by the greater variability of males. McNemar and Terman, 27 in a 
survey of sex differences on variability in -such tests as the Stanford- 
Binet, the National Intelligence Tests, the Pressey Group Test, and 
Thorndike's CAVD test, found that 29 of 33 sex comparisons based 
on age groupings showed greater variability of boys. In Scotland, 874 
of 875 children who were born on four particular days of the calendar 
year 1926, and were still living in 1936, were given a Stanford-Binet 
test at the age of ten years. The S.D. of the IQ distribution for this 
perfect sample was IS .9 for boys and 15 .2 for girls a difference suf- 
ficient to give a sex ratio of 134 boys to 100 girls scoring as high as 
140 IQ. 


Besides the intelligence test scores on which the selection of sub- 
jects was based, information of many different kinds was obtained. 
The chief sources were as follows. 

1. A twelve-page Home Information Blank was filled out by the 
child's parents. This called for information on developmental case his- 
tory, circumstances of birth, early feeding, ages of walking and talking, 
illnesses, nervous symptoms, home training, indications of intelligence, 
age of learning to read, reading habits, educational and occupational 
achievement of parents, genealogical records, and ratings on twenty- 
five traits. 

2. An eight-page School Information Blank was filled out by the 
child's teacher. The blank called for information on school health 
records, quality of school work in each separate subject, evidence of 
superior ability, amount and kinds of reading, nervous symptoms, social 
adjustment, and ratings on the same twenty-five traits that were rated 
by the parents. This information was also obtained for a control group 
of 527 unselected school children. 

3. A one-hour medical examination was given to 783 gifted sub- 
jects^ The examination covered vision, hearing, nutrition, posture, 
teeth, heart, lungs, genitals, glandular disorders, blood pressure and 


hemoglobin tests, pulse and respiration rates, urine tests, and neuro- 
logical conditions. 

4. Thirty-seven anthropometrical measurements were made of 
nearly 600 gifted subjects. 

5. A three-hour battery of achievement tests was given to 550 gifted 
subjects in grades two to eight. The battery covered reading, arith- 
metical computation, arithmetical reasoning, language usage, spelling, 
science information, language and literature information, history and 
civics information, and art information. The same tests were given to 
a large control group of unselected subjects. 

6. A four-page Interest Blank was filled out by all the gifted sub- 
jects who were able to read and write and by a large control group of 
unselected subjects. The blank called for information on occupational 
preferences, reading interests, school-subject interests, relative diffi- 
culty of school subjects, number and size of collections, and various 
activities and accomplishments. 

7. A record of all books read over a period of two months was 
obtained from some 550 gifted subjects and from a control group of 
808 unselected children. Each book read was rated by the child for 
degree of interest. 

8. A test of play interest, play practice, and play information was 
given to all the gifted subjects above grade two, and to a control group 
of nearly 500 unselected children. This test yielded scores on mascu- 
linity, maturity, and sociability of interests, and a play information 

9. A battery of seven character tests was given to 550 gifted sub- 
jects and 533 unselected children of a control group. These included 
two tests of overstatement ; three tests of questionable interests, prefer- 
ences, and attitudes; a test of trustworthiness under temptation to 
cheat ; and a test of emotional stability. 


All racial elements in the areas covered were represented in the 
group, including Orientals, Mexicans, and Negroes. They came from 
all kinds of homes, from the poorest to the best, but the majority were 
the offspring of intellectually superior parents. The tendency to supe- 
riority in the social and cultural background of the subjects is shown 
in many ways. Nearly a third of the fathers as of 1922 were iti pro- 


f essionai occupations, and less than 7 percent in semiskilled or unskilled 
work. The mean amount of schooling of both fathers and mothers was 
approximately 12 grades, or about four grades more than the average 
person of their generation in the United States. A third of the fathers 
and 15.5 percent of the mothers had graduated from college. Twenty- 
eight fathers and six mothers had taken a Ph.D. degree numbers 
which were considerably increased later. By 1940 the number of par- 
ents listed in Who's Who in America were 44 fathers and 3 mothers. 

The number of books in the parents' homes, as estimated by the field 
assistants, ranged from almost none to 6,000, with one home out of six 
having 500 or more. The median family income during 1921 for a ran- 
dom sample of 170 families in the group was $3,333 ; the average for 
the sample was $4,705. Only 4 . 4 percent reported $1 ,500 or less, while 
14 . 1 percent reported $8,500 or more, and 4 . 1 percent reported $12,500 
or more. The field assistants rated a random sample of 574 homes on 
the Whittier Scale for Grading Home Conditions. Rating superior to 
very superior were 60.3 percent, as contrasted with 9.5 percent rating 
inferior to very inferior. 

Additional evidence of the superiority of family background is the 
fact that 182 of the families contributed two or more subjects to the 
group. Among these were 2 families of five children, all of whom quali- 
fied for the gifted group, 10 families each of whom contributed four 
children to the group, and 20 families who contributed three children 
each to the group. There were also 28 families whose children, often 
two or more in a family, are first cousins. Since not more than one 
child in a hundred of the general school population could qualify for 
the group, the likelihood that two such children would be found in one 
family would be almost infinitesimal by the laws of pure chance. That 
so many families contributed two or more children to the group means 
that something besides chance was operating, such as common ancestry, 
common environment, or, more probably, both of these influences. 


Anthropometric measurements were made of a random gifted group 
of 312 boys and 282 girls, all but a few of whom were between the ages 
of 7 and 14. The results showed that the gifted children as a group ex- 
ceeded the best standards at that time for American-born children in 
growth status as indicated by both height and weight, and that they 
were also above the established norms for unselected children in Cali- 


Information on physical history was obtained from parents and 
teachers for nearly all the subjects, and information on health history 
was also* obtained from the teachers for a control group of 527 unselected 
children enrolled in the classes attended by members of the gifted group. 
The mean birth weight reported by the mothers of the gifted was about 
three-quarters of a pound above the norm according to the commonly 
accepted standards of the time. About 17 percent of male births and 12 
percent of female births involved instrumental deliveries ; these rather 
high figures probably reflect the quality of obstetrical service obtained 
by parents of superior intelligence and above-average income. The pro- 
portion of breast feeding was considerably in excess of the figures re- 
ported by Woodbury 44 for the general population. The reported ages 
of learning to walk averaged about a month less, and the age of learning 
to talk about three and one-half months less, than the mean ages re- 
ported for unselected children. Among the older children, the onset of 
puberty, as indicated by change of voice in boys and by first menstrua- 
tion of girls was, on the average, earlier than for children of the gen- 
eral population. About a third of the gifted subjects had suffered one 
or more accidents, 8 percent having had bone fractures. The number 
of surgical operations averaged one per child, over half of which were 
for adenoids or tonsils. 

The School Information Blank filled out by teachers of the gifted 
subjects, and also for a control group attending the same classes, fur- 
nished interesting comparative data. These reports indicate that "fre- 
quent headaches" were only half as common among the gifted as among 
the controls, "poor nutrition/* a third as common, "marked" or "ex- 
treme" mouth-breathing two-thirds as common, and defective hearing 
half as common. The two groups did not differ significantly with re- 
spect to frequency of colds, "excessive timidity," or "tendency to 
worry," but "nervousness" was reported for 20 percent fewer gifted 
than controls. 

The medical examination was given to 783 of the gifted subjects 
who lived in or near Los Angeles or the San Francisco Bay area. The 
examinations were made by two experienced child specialists, both of 
whom had had two years of postgraduate work in the department of 
pediatrics at the University of California Medical School. All exami- 
nations -were made in the physician's office, to which the child was 
brought by a parent, usually the mother. The incidence of physical 
defects and abnormal conditions of almost every kind was below that 
usually reported by school physicians in the best medical surveys of 


school populations In the United States. This is certainly true for de- 
fects of hearing and vision, obstructed breathing, dental caries, mal- 
nutrition, postural defects, abnormal conditions of the heart or kidneys, 
enlargement of the bronchial glands, and tuberculosis. The sleep and 
dietary regimes of the group as a whole were found to be definitely 
superior. The incidence of nervous habits, tics, and stuttering was 
about the same as for the generality of children of corresponding age. 
The examining physicians, notwithstanding occasional disagreement in 
their results, were in complete accord in the belief that, on the whole, 
the gifted children of this group were physically superior to unselected 

The combined results of the medical examinations and the physical 
measurements provide a striking contrast to the popular stereotype of 
the child prodigy so commonly depicted as a pathetic creature, over- 
serious and undersized, sickly, hollow-chested, stoop-shouldered, 
clumsy, nervously tense, and bespectacled. There are gifted children 
who bear some resemblance to this stereotype, but the truth is that 
almost every element in the picture, except the last, is less characteristic 
of the gifted child than of the mentally average. 


The average age on entering school (above kindergarten) was six 
and a quarter years. Low first grade was skipped by 21 percent of the 
children, and the entire first grade by 10 percent. The average progress 
quotient for the entire gifted group was 114, which means that the aver- 
age child was accelerated to the extent of 14 percent of his age. Ac- 
cording to the testimony of their teachers, the average gifted child 
merited additional promotion beyond where he was by 1 .3 half -grades. 
"Strong" liking for school was reported by parents for 54 percent of 
boys and 70 percent of girls, as compared to only 5 percent of the sexes 
combined for whom parents reported either "slight liking" or "posi- 
tive dislike/* 

Nearly half of the children learned to read before starting to school ; 
20 percent did so before the age of five years and 6 percent before four 
years. Other early indications of superior intelligence most often men- 
tioned by parents were quick understanding, insatiable curiosity, ex- 
tensive information, retentive memory, large vocabulary, and unusual 
interest in number relations, atlases, and encyclopedias. 

The Stanford Achievement Tests were given in the spring of 1922 


to a random group of 565 gifted children in grades below the ninth. 
The tests provided separate scores for reading, computation, arithmet- 
ical reasoning, language usage, spelling, and four different fields of 
information. The average achievement quotient for the school subjects 
combined was 144, and only one quotient in six was as low as 130, The 
difference of 30 quotient points between the average achievement quo- 
tient of 144 and the average progress quotient of 114 (noted above), 
means that the average gifted child was retarded in grade placement by 
30 percent of his age below the level of achievement which he had 
already reached. More than half of those tested had mastered the school 
curriculum to a point two full grades beyond the one in which they were 
enrolled, and some of them as much as three or four grades beyond. 
For the fields of subject matter covered by our tests, the superiority 
of the gifted subjects over unselected children was greatest in reading, 
arithmetical reasoning, and information ; it was least in computation and 

Another question answered by the achievement tests was whether 
the gifted child tends to be more one-sided in his abilities than the aver- 
age child, as so many people believe to be the case. Analysis of the 
subject-matter achievement quotients of the gifted group as compared 
to a group of unselected children shows that the amount of unevenness 
in subject-matter profiles of the gifted does not differ significantly from 
that shown by unselected children. 


The four-page Interest Blank was filled out by all of the gifted who 
were old enough to read, and also by a control group of unselected chil- 
dren. In a long list of school subjects the children were asked to rate 
on a five-point scale their liking for each of the school subjects they 
had studied. We will consider here only the ratings given by children 
of ages 11 to 13, inclusive. Analysis of the ratings showed that gifted 
children were more interested than were unselected children in school 
subjects which are most abstract, and somewhat less interested in 
the "practical" subjects. Literature, debating, dramatics, and history 
were rated much more interesting by the gifted, while penmanship, 
manual training, drawing, and painting were rated somewhat higher by 
the control group. When cross-sex comparisons were made, it was 
found that in their scholastic interests gifted girls resembled gifted boys 
far more closely than they resembled control girls. 


In the same Interest Blank was a list of 125 occupations and the 
child was told to place one cross before each occupation he might pos- 
sibly wish to follow and two crosses before his one first choice. The data 
were treated for ages 8 to 13 for both gifted and control groups. Analy- 
sis of the data revealed that the gifted showed greater preference for 
professional and semiprofessional occupations, and the control group 
greater preference for mechanical and clerical occupations and for 

The test of interest in 90 plays, games, and other activities was de- 
signed in such a way as to yield a preference score on each of the 90 
items for each age and sex group of gifted and control subjects. Com- 
parison of boys and girls in the control group with respect to kinds of 
plays and games preferred made it possible to derive a masculinity- 
femininity index for each child. Similarly, by comparison of prefer- 
ences expressed at different ages in the control group, an index of inter- 
est maturity was derived for each child. Finally, an index of sociabil- 
ity was computed which was based on the extent of a child's preference 
for plays and games that involve social participation and social organ- 
ization. Comparison of the gifted and control (i.e., unselected) children 
on these three indices yielded the following conclusions : ( 1 ) Gifted boys 
tended to be somewhat more masculine in their play interests than con- 
trol boys at all ages from 8 to 12 years, after which there was little dif- 
ference. Gifted and control girls did not differ significantly at ages 8, 
9, and 10, but at ages 11, 12, and 13 the gifted girls tended to be more 
masculine. (2) Comparisons of maturity indices for gifted and control 
subjects showed greater maturity of play interests for the gifted of both 
sexes at all age levels ; i.e., they were ahead of their years in play inter- 
ests. (3) Comparisons on sociability indices showed gifted subjects 
of both sexes significantly below control subjects at all ages ; i.e., age for 
age the control subjects had somewhat more interest than gifted sub- 
jects in plays that involve social participation. Much of this difference 
can be accounted for by the fact that the gifted child is more self-suffi- 
cient and thus more able to amuse himself. 

A test of play information (composed of 123 items that could be 
scored objectively) was devised which yielded a play information quo- 
tient based on age norms for unselected children. The average play 
information quotient of the gifted was 137, and only 3 percent of the 
group were below 100. The average gifted child of 9 years had acquired 


more factual information about plays and games than the average un- 
selected child of 12 years. 

Information on the amount and kind of reading done was obtained 
by having 511 gifted children and 808 children of a control group keep 
a record of each book read during a period of two months. The records 
revealed that the average gifted child was reading about 10 books in 
two months by age 7, and IS books by age 11, with little increase there- 
after. Few of the control group read any books below 8 years, and after 
8 years the average number read in two months was less than half that 
of the gifted. Classification of the books read showed the gifted children 
reading over a considerably wider range than the control children. The 
gifted, much more often than the control group, preferred science, his- 
tory, biography, travel, poetry, drama, and informational fiction. 


Do children of superior intelligence tend to be superior also in char- 
acter traits ? An answer to this question was sought by giving a battery 
of seven character tests to a random group of 532 gifted children aged 
7 to 14 years and to a control group of 533 unselected children aged 10 
to 14 years. The battery included two tests of the tendency to overstate 
in reporting experience and knowledge ; three tests of the wholesome- 
ness of preferences and attitudes (reading preferences, character pref- 
erences, and social attitudes, respectively) ; a test of cheating under 
circumstances that offered considerable temptation ; and a test of emo- 
tional stability. The tests were so devised that they could be scored 
objectively and could be given to the subjects in groups. The nature 
of the several tests is described in an earlier report. 39 

The tests of cheating and emotional stability were selected as among 
the best of a battery of character tests used by Cady ; 4 the others were 
all from a battery devised by Raubenheimer. 29 Both of these batteries 
had been found to yield satisfactory reliability coefficients and to dis- 
criminate rather effectively between boys of known delinquent tenden- 
cies and boys of superior social and behavioral adjustment. Total 
scores of the seven character tests have a reliability of .80 to .85 
and a validity (based on discrimination between delinquent and well- 
adjusted boys of ages 12 to 14) of approximately .60. Whether the 
validity is equally high for girls is not known. 

The results of the character tests were decisive ; the gifted group 


scored "better" than the control group on every subtest at every age 
from ten to fourteen. Below the age of ten no comparison was possible 
because the control subjects below this age were not sufficiently liter- 
ate to take the tests. Table 1 shows, for the sexes separately, the pro- 
portion of gifted subjects who equaled or surpassed the mean of the 
control group on each subtest and on the total score for ages ten to four- 
teen combined. 





Boys Girls 

Tests % % 

1. Overstatement A 57 " 59 

2. Overstatement B < 63 , 73 

~ 3. Book preferences 74 76 

4. Character preferences 77 . 81 

5. Social attitudes -.-. 86 83 

6. Cheating tests 68 61 , . 

7. Emotional stability 67 75 

Total SQore 86 84 

The question may~be raised whether a part of the superiority is 
spurious because of the possibility that bright subjects would be more 
likely to* divine the purpose of the tests and so respond in the socially 
approved way. This factor, if present at all, would be most likely to 
influence scores on reading preferences^ character preferences, social 
attitudes, and emotional instability. It is believed hardly to have entered 
at all in the cheating test (disguised as a test of motor accuracy) or in 
the two overstatement tests, all three of which gave highly reliable dif- 
ferences between the gifted and control groups. In his study of delin- 
cpient and well-adjusted boys, Raubenheimer 29 questioned his subjects 
after they had completed the tests, to find out whether they had guessed 
their purpose. Less than 5 percent of his subjects (all. thirteen years 
old) guessed correctly. 


The plan of trait rating used with the gifted subjects was the result 
of several years' experience in trying out various rating schemes with 
children of average and superior ability. The traits finally selected for 
rating numbered 25 and can be classified in the following categories : 


intellectual (4), volitional (4), moral (4), emotional (3), aesthetic (2), 
physical (2), social; (5), and the single trait, mechanical ability. The 
individual traits are listed by category in Table 2. However, in the 
blanks in which the ratings were made, the traits were presented in a 
mixed order. 

A cross-on-line technique was used in getting the rating for each 
trait and the ratings were scored in intervals of 1 to 13. Nearly all of 
the gifted subjects were rated both by, a parent and by a teacher. 
Teacher ratings were also obtained for 523 children of ages 8 to 14 in 
a control group composed of unselected children enrolled in the same 
classes as the gifted. 

Parents and teachers agreed fairly well regarding the traits on which 
the gifted children were most or least superior to average children. The 
rank order of the traits from highest to lowest mean rating by parents 
correlated .70 with the corresponding rank order based on teachers 5 
ratings. However, the agreement was much less in their ratings on 
individual children ; for most of the traits it was represented by a Pear- 
sonian correlation of only about . 30. This figure should not be regarded 
as a reliability coefficient in the true sense, for the reason that a child's 
personality behavior in the school is often very different from that which 
he exhibits in the home. 

More important is the comparison of gifted and control subjects on 
ratings given to both groups by the teachers. Table 2 giv&s the com- 
parative data on both for the 25 individual traits and for groups of traits 
as classified in various categories. The figures in Table 2 are for the 
sexes combined and for all ages combined, since the mean ratings varied 
only slightly either with age or with sex. The slight variation by age 
and sex was- to be expected in view of the fact that raters were instructed 
to rate each subject in comparison with the "average child of his age 
and sex." 

The superiority of the gifted over the control subjects as shown by 
teachers' ratings agrees fairly well with the data from other sources. 
This is especially true in regard to the kinds of traits in which the supe- 
riority of the gifted is most or least marked. At the top of the list are the 
four intellectual traits, with 89 percent of gifted rated at or above the 
mean of control subjects. Especially high were the ratings of "general 
intelligence" and "desire to know/' Next highest were the four voli- 
tional traits, with percentages in the narrow range of 84 to 81. Third 
highest are the three emotional traits, with "sense of humor" (74%) the 





1. Intellectual traits 

General intelligence 97 

Desire to know 90 

Originality 85 

Common sense 84 

Average of intellectual traits 89 

2. Volitional traits 

Will power and perseverance 84 

Desire to excel 84 

Self-confidence 81 

Prudence and forethought 81 

Average of volitional traits 82.5 

3. Emotional traits 

Sense of humor 74 

Cheerfulness and optimism 64 

Permanence of moods 63 

Average of emotional traits 67 

4. Aesthetic traits 

Musical appreciation 66 

Appreciation of beauty 64 

Average of aesthetic traits 65 

5. Moral traits 

Conscientiousness 72 

Truthfulness 71 

Sympathy and tenderness 58 

Generosity and unselfishness 55 

Average of moral traits 64 

6^ Physical traits 

Health 6Q 

Physical energy 53 

Average of physical traits 61 

7. Social traits 

Leadership 70 

Sensitivity to approval j>. 57 

Popularity 53 

Freedom from vanity 52 

Fondness for large groups 52 

Average for social traits 57^4 

8. Mechanical ingenuity , 47 


highest of the three. The two aesthetic traits rank fourth with percent- 
ages of 64 and 66. Of the four moral traits, "conscientiousness" and 
"truthfulness" are rated reliably higher than the other two ("sym- 
pathy" and "generosity"). The two ratings on physical traits, which 
rank next, agree fairly well with the physical data obtained from medical 
examinations, health histories, and anthropometric measurements. 
Ranking seventh are the five social traits ; of these, only "leadership" 
(with 70% ) is rated very much above the mean of control children. The 
ratings on "leadership" are consistent with the later follow-up studies 
which have shown the high frequency with which gifted subjects have 
been elected to class offices and honors despite their usual age disad- 

"Mechanical ingenuity" was the one trait in which teachers rated 
the gifted below unselected children. It is certain that the teachers were 
in error here, for test scores in mechanical ability have been consistently 
found to yield positive, not negative, correlations with intelligence 
scores. This is a trait which the average classroom teacher has little 
opportunity to observe ; moreover, she is prone to overlook the fact that 
the gifted child in her class is usually a year or two younger than the 


Although there are many exceptions to the rule, the typical gifted 
child is the product of superior parentage superior not only in cultural 
and educational background, but apparently also in heredity. As a 
result of the combined influence of heredity and environment, such 
children are superior physically to the average child of the general 

Educationally, the typical gifted child is accelerated in grade place- 
ment about 14 percent of his age ; but in mastery of the subject matter 
taught, he is accelerated about 44 percent of his age. The net result is 
that during the elementary-school period a majority of gifted children 
are kept at school tasks two or three full grades below the level of 
achievement they have already reached. 

The interests of gifted children are many-sided and spontaneous. 
The members of our group learned to read easily and read many more 
and also better books than the average child. At the same time, they 
engaged in a wide range of childhood activities and acquired far more 


knowledge of plays and games than the average child of their years. 
Their preferences among plays and games closely follow the normal sex 
trends with regard to masculinity and femininity of interests, although 
gifted girls tend to be somewhat more masculine in their play life than 
the average girls. Both sexes show a degree of interest maturity two 
or three years beyond the age norm. 

A battery of seven character tests showed gifted children above 
average on every one. On the total score of the character tests the typi- 
cal gifted child at age 9 tests as high as the average child at age 12. 

Ratings on 25 traits by parents and teachers confirm the evidence 
from tests and case histories. The proportion of gifted subjects rated 
superior to unselected children of corresponding age averaged 89 per- 
cent for four intellectual traits, 82 percent for four volitional traits, 
67 percent for three emotional traits, 65 percent for two aesthetic traits, 
64 percent for four moral traits, 61 percent for two physical traits, and 
57 percent for five social traits. Only on mechanical ingenuity were 
they rated as low as unselected children, and this verdict is contradicted 
by tests of mechanical aptitude. 

Three facts stand out clearly in this composite portrait: (1) The 
deviation of gifted children from the generality is in the upward direc- 
tion for nearly all traits ; there is no law of compensation whereby the 
intellectual superiority of the gifted is offset by inferiorities along non- 
intellectual lines. (2) The amount of upward deviation of the gifted 
is not the same for all traits. (3) This unevenness of abilities is no 
greater for gifted than for average children, but it is different in direc- 
tion; whereas the gifted are at their best in the "thought" subjects, 
average children are at their best in subjects that make the least demands 
upon the formation and manipulation of concepts. 

Finally, the reader should bear in mind that there is a wide range 
of variability within our gifted group on every trait we have investi- 
gated. Descriptions of the gifted in terms of what is typical are useful 
as a basis for generalization, but emphasis on central tendencies should 
not blind us to the fact that gifted children, far from falling into a single 
pattern, represent an almost infinite variety of patterns. 


For several years after 1922 the progress of the group was followed by 
means of information blanks sent annually to parents and teachers re- 
questing certain physical, educational, and social data. In 192728 a 
more thorough investigation by field workers was undertaken and 
became the first of three field follow-ups at approximately 10- to 12- 
year intervals. These field studies were supplemented by intervening 
surveys by mail. 


The six-year interval between the original research and the follow- 
up investigation of 1927-28 was in a number of respects favorable as 
to length; it was great enough to make a comparison between earlier 
and later findings significant and interesting, but not so long as to make 
it impossible to use any of the kinds of tests employed in the original 

At the time of the follow-up (1927-28) the average age of the sub- 
jects was between 16 and 17 years and the majority were in high school. 
The data secured for the subjects included intelligence tests, school 
achievement tests, personality tests, and interest tests. Other types of 
data obtained were as follows : a Home Information Blank of four pages 
was filled out by parents of subjects up to and including age nineteen. 
A two-page Interest Blank was filled out by the subjects under twenty, 
and a two-page Information Blank by those twenty or over. A School 
Information Blank of two pages was filled out by the teachers of the 
children who were still in elementary or high school. A Trait Rating 
Blank provided ratings by parents and teachers on 12 traits selected 
from the 25 on which ratings were secured in 1921-22. Finally, blanks 
were provided for the field workers' reports on home visits and on con- 
ferences with the children themselves and their teachers. It was not 
possible, unfortunately, to repeat the medical examinations and physi- 
cal measurements of the original study, but considerable information 



on physical development and health history was secured from parents 
and teachers. 

Perhaps the most important outcome of the 1927-28 follow-up was 
the fact that the composite portrait of the group had changed only in 
minor respects in six years. As a whole, the group was still highly 
superior intellectually, for the most part within the top 1 or 2 percent 
of the generality. There was some evidence that the boys had dropped 
slightly in IQ and that the girls had dropped somewhat more. This con- 
clusion, however, needs .to be qualified in two respects : For one thing, 
the intelligence tests used in the follow-up lacked sufficient top to yield 
IQ's strictly comparable with those of 1921-22; for another, it should 
be pointed out that some regression toward the mean is to be expected 
from purely statistical considerations. 

The showing in school achievement was in line with that for intelli- 
gence. There was less skipping of school grades after the age of eleven 
or twelve years, but the quality of work for the group in general re- 
mained at an exceedingly high level. For example, nearly two-thirds 
of the high-school grades of the girls and more than one-half of the high- 
school grades of the boys were A's. The significance of this is accentu- 
ated by the fact that the gifted group in the high-school period averaged 
considerably younger than the generality of high-school students. In 
evaluating school achievement at the high-school or college level, it is 
also necessary to bear in mind that the higher the grade the more highly 
selected is the school population with whom the gifted subjects are com- 

The composite-portrait method is useful, just as concepts and gen- 
eralizations are useful in the shorthand of thinking. Nevertheless, the 
composite portrait, like any other kind of average, fails to convey any 
sense of the uniqueness of the individual subjects who compose the 
group. Although deviations below average intelligence were not found 
in the 1927-28 follow-up, extreme deviations both from the group aver- 
age and from the generality were found in almost every physical, mental, 
and personality trait, including size, athletic ability, health, scientific 
ability, literary ability, masculinity, social and activity interests, voca- 
tional aptitude, social intelligence, leadership, ambition, and moral de- 
pendability. It is true that on all of these traits the mean for the gifted 
group tends to be higher than for unselected children of corresponding 
age, but the range of variability in these and other traits was if anything 
greater in mid-youth than it had been in mid-childhood. The results 
of the 1927-28 follow-up and a collateral study of the literary juvenilia 


of certain members of the group are described at length in Volume III 
of this series. 3 


For eight years after the follow-up described in the preceding section 
there was no systematic attempt to contact all the members of the gifted 
group. During that period, however, considerable correspondence was 
carried on with the parents and occasionally with the individual subjects 
of the group. Many wrote about their activities, or came to Stanford 
University for personal interviews. From the majority of the group, 
however, little information was secured during this period. 

In 1936 plans were laid for an extensive field study to be made as 
soon as funds should become available. First, however, it seemed de- 
sirable to get in touch with as many as possible of the original group 
by mail, and to secure certain information that would aid in planning 
for the projected field study. Accordingly, a letter was sent out de- 
tailing the study and its purposes, and asking for the address of the 
subject, of his parents, and of a relative or friend through whom the sub- 
ject might be located in later years. The letter was usually sent to the 
parents, although occasionally it went to the subject himself at the most 
recent address in our files. When the addresses had been received, a 
four-page Information Blank was sent to each subject, and a four-page 
Home Information Blank to the parents or, if both parents were de- 
ceased, to a near relative. The blank was accompanied by a letter em- 
phasizing our continued interest in the subject, and the value both to 
science and to education of exact knowledge regarding the adult careers 
of persons who had tested high in intelligence during childhood. 

The subject's Information Blank called for detailed information 
regarding educational history, occupations since leaving school, avoca- 
tional interests and activities, general health, marital status, and deaths 
among relatives since 1928. The Home Information Blank called for 
information on the subject's physical and mental health, indications of 
special abilities, personality and character traits, education and occupa- 
tions of siblings, and the accomplishments and activities of the sub- 
ject's parents. Both blanks gave ample space for "additional informa- 
tion" not called for by specific questions and this brought, in many cases, 
extremely valuable and detailed replies. 

The blanks were sent out in the spring of 1936 and, though the great 
majority of the reports had been received by midsummer, there was 
considerable difficulty in locating some of the subjects. It was nearly 


a year before blanks could be placed in the hands of all those who finally 
' were located. This mail follow-up was more successful than had been 
expected, for approximately 90 percent of the subjects were located and 
from nearly all of them considerable information was obtained. 

The information collected in 1936 brought the case history records 
up to date and thus set the stage for the more searching investigation 
of 1939-40. This follow-up was of special interest because it consti- 
tuted the first person-to-person contact with the subjects since they 
had become adults (the average age in 1940 was 29.5 years). At the 
time of the original survey and again in the 1927-28 field follow-up, 
except for the tests and personal interviews which were conducted 
chiefly at the schools, most of our information had been obtained from 
the parents and the teachers. This was intentional because it was our 
purpose not to emphasize the study and its implications in the minds 
of the children. The following quotation from the instructions to the 
parents and teachers both in 1921-22 and in 1927-28 is self-explana- 
tory : 

In order to avoid the danger of causing undue self -consciousness, parents 
are urged not to call the child's attention to the fact that he (or she) is be- 
ing studied. Do not tell the child the exact result of the mental test, or say 
anything about the special information which is sought in this blank. Pub- 
licity of every kind should be avoided. Do nothing which could possibly 
stimulate vanity or self -consciousness. 

Although many perhaps most of the children did know by 1927-28 
the nature of the experiment in which they were involved at least to the 
extent of realizing they had been chosen as bright students by a pro- 
fessor who was interested in such students, the knowledge seems not 
to have been of much concern to most. This was brought out in the 
Information Blank of 1936 which asked this question: What effects 
(favorable, unfavorable, or both) has this knowledge (of being a sub- 
ject in an investigation of gifted children) had upon you? 

The responses classified separately for the sexes were as follows : 

Men Women 

% % 

Favorable 12.9 18.7 

Unfavorable 9.1 10.7 

Both favorable and unfavorable 4.7 6.3 

No effect 73.3 64.3 

The second field follow-up began late in 1939 and continued into 
1941 but the bulk of the data was collected in 1940. Four field workers 


spent the year interviewing the subjects and, wherever possible, their 
parents also. Intelligence tests were administered to the subjects, their 
spouses, and their offspring and extensive questionnaire data were col- 
lected from the subjects, the spouses, and the parents of the subjects. In 
addition, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank 31 was filled out by the 
men of the group. The study was highly successful with some informa- 
tion secured either directly or indirectly for nearly 98 percent of the 
living subjects, and fairly complete data were furnished by the 96 
percent who co-operated actively. 

So great was the amount of material on hand at the close of the field 
study that the punched card technique was used to analyze and corre- 
late the data more efficiently. Not only the 1940 information but also the 
extensive case history data accumulated since the inception of this re- 
search were coded and transferred to punched cards. This method of 
handling the data made possible a very detailed study of the gifted child 
grown up, which has been fully reported in the preceding volume of 
this series. 36 This earlier volume includes also the results of a supple- 
mentary survey conducted by means of a questionnaire mailed in 1945- 
46, which brought up to date the records on the main events in the lives 
of the subjects between 1940 and 1946 close to 25 years after they had 
been selected for study. 

In addition to the reports on mortality, general health and physique, 
mental health and general adjustment, intellectual status, educational 
histories, occupational status and income, vocational interest tests, avo- 
cational interests, political and social attitudes, marriage and offspring, 
and marital adjustment, Volume IV includes several special studies 
based on an analysis of total case history. The studies included sub- 
jects of IQ 170 and above, subjects of Jewish descent, factors in the 
achievement of gifted men, and the effects of school acceleration. Among 
the conclusions reached were the following : 

That to near mid-life, such a group may be expected to show a nor- 
mal or below-normal incidence of serious personality maladjustment, 
insanity, delinquency, alcoholism, and homosexuality. 
^ That, as a rule, those who as children tested above 170 IQ were 
more often accelerated in school, got better grades, and^received more 
schooling than lower-testing members of the group ; jtnat uiey are not 
appreciably more prone to serious maladjustment; and that vocation- 
ally they are more successful. 

That gifted children who have been promoted more rapidly than is 


customary are as a group equal or superior to gifted nonaccelerates in 
health and general adjustment, do better school work, continue their 
education further, and are more successful in their later careers. 

j That the intellectual status of the average member of the group at 
the mean age of thirty years was close to the 98th or 99th percentile of 
the general adult population, and was far above the average level of 
ability of graduates from superior colleges and universities. 

SThat in vocational achievement the gifted group rates well above 
the average of college graduates! aiKf^as compared with the general 
population, is represented in the higher professions by eight or nine 
times its proportionate share. 

That the vocational success of subjects, all of whom as children 
tested in the top 1 percent of the child population is, as one would ex- 
pect, greatly influenced by motivational factors and personality adjust- 

g| That the incidence of marriage in the group to 1945 is above that 
for the generality of college graduates of comparable age in the United 
States, and about equal to that in the general population. 

That marital adjustment of the gifted, as measured by the marital 
happiness test, is equal or superior to that found in groups less highly 
selected for intelligence, and that the divorce rate is no higher than that 
of the generality of comparable age. 

^JThat the sexual adjustment of these subjects in marriage is in all 
respects as normal as that found in a less gifted and less educated group 
of 792 married couples. 

That the test of marital aptitude predicts later marital success or 
failure in this group a little better than the test of marital happiness, 
much better than the index of sexual adjustment, and almost as well as 
scholastic aptitude tests predict success or failure in college. 

That offspring of gifted subjects show almost exactly the same de- 
gree of filial regression as is predicated by Galton's Law. 

I That the fertility of the group to 1945 is probably below that neces- 
sary for the continuation of the stock from which the subjects come, 
and that this stock is greatly superior to the generality. 

\ That Jewish subjects in the group differ very little from the non- 
Jewish in ability, character, and personality traits, as measured either 
by tests or by ratings, but that they display somewhat stronger drive 
to achieve, form more stable marriages, and are a little less conserva- 
tive in their political and social attitudes. 


The third field follow-up of the gifted subjects was made in 1950-52. 
In order to pave the way for the field worker contacts, a General In- 
formation Blank was mailed in the spring- of 1950, and had been re- 
turned by the majority of the subjects by the fall of that year. The field 
work got under way in late 1950 and was completed about mid-1952. 

The preliminary blank called for some twenty kinds of information 
that would furnish a profile of the gifted subjects at mid-life. Other 
blanks and tests used in gathering follow-up data included the following : 
a highly difficult test of intelligence (Concept Mastery test) comparable 
to that used in 193940 but with certain improvements ; an abbreviated 
form of the 1939-40 marital happiness test; a four-page questionnaire 
calling for information on factors that had influenced rate of repro- 
duction ; an eight-page questionnaire designed to throw light on factors 
relating to childhood and family background that might have influenced 
personality development, motivation, or life success ; a four-page blank 
relating to the development, health history, and personality character- 
istics of each child born to members of the group. 

The field work program included personal interviews with as many 
of the subjects as possible (and usually the spouses also) who were liv- 
ing in California, the administration of the Concept Mastery test and 
the various supplementary questionnaires to the subject and the spouse, 
and the testing of offspring of appropriate age with the Stanford-Binet 
test. In the case of those subjects living at a distance (about 18% of 
the total), funds were not sufficient to provide for visits by field work- 
ers. Except for the personal interview and the intelligence tests, how- 
ever, the same data were collected by mail for these subjects as for the 
in-state group seen personally. 

The statistical treatment and analysis of the information collected 
in the follow-up was such an enormous and time-consuming task that 
it was decided in 1955 to bring the demographic information up to date 
for inclusion in the published report of the status of the gifted group 



at mid-life. Accordingly a two-page Information Blank was mailed to 
the subjects in the spring of 1955, calling for the latest information on 
the main items of basic data. 

In addition to the data blanks* for the subjects and spouses listed 
In Table 3, Stanford-Binet tests have been given to a total of 1,525 off- 
spring of the gifted subjects. For a large proportion of these children 
a record of developmental history (Information About Child) was filled 
out by a parent, usually the mother, at the time of testing. The data 
from this blank will be reported in a separate publication at a later date. 



Subjects Spouses 
I. 1950-52 Follow-up 

General Information (for subjects) 1,268 

Supplementary Biographical Data (for subjects and 

spouses) 1,119 

Data on Rate of Reproduction and Happiness of 

Marriage (for subjects) 972 

Happiness of Your Marriage (for spouses) 565 

Concept Mastery Test (subjects and spouses) 1,004 690 

II. 1955 Follow-up 

Information Blank (for subjects) 1,288 


When the follow-up data of 1950-52 were gathered, the subjects 
had been under observation for approximately 30 years, and at the time 
of the 1955 survey the time had extended to about 34 years. Of the 
original group of 1,528 subjects, 91 had died by 1950 and an additional 
13 deaths by 1955 brought the total number of deceased subjects to 
104. During the course of study we have completely lost track of only 
28 subjects (11 men and 17 women). In none of these cases has any 
contact been effected since 1928 or earlier, either with the subjects, their 
parents, or any members of their families. Although it is possible that 
not all of the "lost" subjects are now living, there is no reason to believe 
that our original loss of contact was in any case caused by the death of 
the subject but rather by the removal of the family to a different area. 
The eight-year interval between the field follow-up of 1927-28 and the 
mail follow-up of 1936 made it difficult to trace the subjects who had 

* These blanks are reproduced in the Appendix. 


moved any distance, especially since the relationships with the parents, 
and to an even greater extent with the subjects, had not been suffi- 
ciently well established by 1928 to ensure their notifying the research 
administration of changes in address. The greater loss in the case of 
women can be accounted for by the greater difficulty in tracing them 
because of name changes through marriage. 

By 1955 death had reduced the number of subjects under study to 
795 men and 629 women. The 11 men and 17 women classified as "lost" 
bring the number for whom information on current status was sought 
to 784 men and 612 women. In addition to the "lost" subjects there are 
a few other persons for whom our information is fragmentary, often 
secured indirectly through parent, sibling, or other informant. Further- 
more, not everyone, including some of the most interested and co- 
operative, completed all the blanks ; in a few cases, even, no blanks were 
filled out, the subject preferring to give the information in an inter- 
view or informally in a letter. Occasionally, too, a subject omitted one 
or more items in filling out a questionnaire. For these reasons there will 
be slight irregularities in the number of cases (N) for whom various 
types of data are reported in succeeding chapters. In the case of the 
Concept Mastery test the number of individuals is necessarily limited 
to those to whom the test could be administered in person. All subjects 
who were personally interviewed or for whom information was sup- 
plied either in a questionnaire or through correspondence are considered 
to have co-operated in the follow-ups. 

The success of these two follow-ups is indicated by the almost in- 
credible amount of co-operation that was secured. Of the 1,437 sub- 
jects living at the time of the field study, 95 percent participated actively 
and the addition of those for whom information was secured indirectly 
brings the total contacted, either directly or indirectly, to 97 . 5 percent. 
The results of the mail follow-up of 1955 are almost as impressive, with 
co-operation from 93 percent of the 1,424 subjects then living.* The 
follow-up contacts and co-operation for both the field study of 1950-52 
and the mail follow-up of 1955 are shown in Table 4. 


In the follow-ups of 1950-55 reported here, as throughout the study, 
the information obtained has not been limited to that secured by tests 

* The 28 "lost" subjects are included in the totals of 1,437 and 1,424 since we 
are continuing to look for them. 



%of Total 

I. Field Study of 1950-52 

Subjects interviewed by field workers 1,142 

Subj ects contacted by mail only 225 

Total actively co-operating 1,367 95 . 1 

No direct contact with subject but information 

from other sources 34 

Total in touch with directly or indirectly 1,401 97 . 5 

No contact or information in 1950-52 but co- 
operating 1940-1945 8 

Lost : unable to trace and no information since 

1928 or earlier 28 

Total group 1,437* 

II. Follow-up by Mail, 1955 

Information blank filled out by subject 1,288 90.5 

No direct contact with subject but information 

from other sources 38 

Total in touch with directly or indirectly 1,326 93 . 1 

Co-operating in 1950-52 but no information 
supplied in 1955 63 

No contact or information in 1955 but co- 
operating 1940-45 7 

Lost : unable to trace and no information since 

1928 or earlier 28 

Total group 1,424* 

* The difference in the total group N's is accounted for by 13 deaths between 1952 and 1955. 

and questionnaires. The data furnished by the subjects have been illu- 
minated by the field worker reports, and much additional interesting 
and valuable information has come through informal personal corre- 
spondence and visits of the subjects or members of their families with 
the research staff at Stanford University. Such correspondence and 
visits have been frequent over the years, regardless of whether a follow- 
up was in progress. 

This study is unique in many aspects, particularly in the length of 
time almost 35 years that the same group of individuals has been 
followed, and in the wealth of material collected about the subjects from 
childhood or early youth to mid-life, thus furnishing a continuous record 
of intellectual development and of educational, vocational, and marital 
history as well as of physical and mental health. In addition to these 


specific items there is a great deal of less easily statisticized data. These 
include the explorations into the personality dynamics, interests, and 
attitudes of the subject that complete the total picture of the gifted indi- 
vidual. The case history material is further enhanced by collateral data 
on the parents, the siblings, and the offspring. Finally, the unparalleled 
co-operation of the subjects and their families lends additional impor- 
tance and validity to the findings. 

So vast is the amount of information collected in the 1950-55 fol- 
low-ups that to discuss and evaluate it fully in this volume would delay* 
publication until some of the items, particularly those related to vital 
and social statistics, would be out of date. This report, therefore, will 
be concerned chiefly with the data called for in the 1950 General Infor- 
mation Blank and the 1955 Information Blank. As a rule, in the case 
of those demographic items for which the information was secured at 
both dates, only the figures for the more recent date (1955) are given. 
Other findings to be covered in this volume include the results of the 
testing of the subjects and their spouses with the Concept Mastery test 
and of their offspring with the Stanford-Binet test. The tremendous 
amount of valuable autobiographical material supplied in the Supple- 
mentary Biographical Data blank as well as the data on factors affecting 
fecundity in the group as found in the Rate of Reproduction blank and 
on marital happiness as reported in The Happiness of Your Marriage 
blank will be only touched on in this volume. The detailed analysis and 
evaluation of the information from these questionnaires is reserved for 
future publication. 



In addition to our interest in how gifted children turn out from the 
standpoint of educational, occupational, intellectual, and creative 
achievements, we also want to know about their careers as people. In 
this chapter we will consider the mortality record, physical health status, 
and the mental health and general adjustment of the gifted subjects. 
The latter topic includes, in addition to the ratings on general adjust- 
ment, such specific aspects of malfunctioning as mental disease, alco- 
holism, crime and delinquency, and problems related to sex. 


By 1955 the number of deaths among the gifted subjects was 104 
(62 males and 42 females) ; this represents an incidence of 7.3 percent 
for males, 6.3 percent for females, and 6.9 percent for the total group 
of 1,500 subjects with whom we have been able to keep in touch. 
Table 5 gives the mortality rate according to sex and age at death. 



Males Females Both Sexes 

(N = 846) (N = 654) (N = 1,500) 

Age at Death N % N % ^ ^~ 

Under 15 years 3 0.4 2 0.3 5 0.3 

15-24 years 22 2.6 14 2.1 36 2.4 

25-34 years 19 2.2 14 2.1 33 2.2 

35-44 years 17 2.0 12 1.8 29 1 9 

45-49years 1 0.1 1 0.1 

Aliases 62 7.3 42 6.3 104 6.9 

Median age at death 29.5 years 27.6 years 28.4 years 

In comparing the mortality record of the gifted group with the rate 
for the generality the life table data supplied by Dublin and his asso- 



dates for two different periods has been used. The first tables are based 
on the mortality conditions of 1929-3 1 12 and the second on the mor- 
tality conditions of 1939-41 . 13 The data for these two periods reflect 
fairly well the conditions to which the gifted subjects have been ex- 
posed since only 14 of the total group selected in 1921-22 had died 
before 1929. The mortality rate for the generality in a particular 
age span can be determined from the life table by finding the number 
out of an arbitrarily large number (in this case 100,000) of live births 
who are living at a given age and the proportion of that number who 
die by a specified older age. Ages 11 and 44 were chosen as the initial 
and upper age limits, respectively, on the life table because they ap- 
proximate the average ages of our group when first selected for study 
(1921-22), and at the time of latest report (1955). Under the condi- 
tions of 1929-31, the life tables indicate that of the United States white 
population who survive to 11 years of age, 12.7 percent of males, 10.8 
percent of females, and 11.7 percent of the total cohort will have died 
by age 44. Under the improved mortality conditions of 1939-41 we 
find that in the general population 9 . 1 percent of males, 6 . 8 percent 
of females, and 8.0 percent of the total white population alive at age 11 
will have died by age 44. A comparison of these figures with those 
given for the gifted subjects in Table 5 shows the mortality rate for 
our total group as well as for the sexes separately to be lower than the 
expectation based on conditions at either of the life table dates. This 
difference may be attributable to the superior physique and health that 
characterized the group in childhood as well as to their generally su- 
perior intellectual and economic status and its concomitants. However, 
as will be seen, accident-induced mortality has also been somewhat less 
than for the generality. 

Causes of death. The causes of death with the percentage incidence 
are given in Table 6. Natural causes account for 62 of the 104 deaths. 
Accidents follow with 21 deaths, and suicide ranks third with 15 deaths. 
The five World War II casualties are listed separately. Three of these 
men died in combat, one was killed in the crash of a transport plane 
he was piloting on military duty, and a naval officer lost his life in a 
storm at sea. 

Among the natural causes the three leading diseases have been : the 
cardiovascular-renal group with 17 deaths, cancer (including 3 cases 
of leukemia) with 10 deaths, and tuberculosis with 9 deaths. All but 
four of the 27 deaths from the first two causes occurred in the 15-year 



(N = 846) 

(N = 654) 

N % 

32 4.9 
4 0.6 

Both Sexes 
(N = 1,500) 

.. 30 



r a 









.. 17 

World War II casualties , . 

.. 5 
.. 10 





Death from all causes . 

.. 62 



period from 1939 through 1954. This agrees with the pattern in the 
genera! population of an increase in the death rate from these diseases 
with advance in age. On the other hand, with one exception, all the 
deaths from tuberculosis occurred before 1939 and therefore among 
younger subjects. 

For gifted men, only the cardiovascular-renal diseases among the 
natural causes have an incidence as high as the death rate from acci- 
dents; each has caused the death of 17 men. Among gifted women 
three diseases rank higher than accidents as a cause of death : tubercu- 
losis and cancer have taken six lives each, and diseases of the heart 
account for five deaths. In the general population, accidents rank first 
(ahead of any single disease or defect) as a cause of death from birth 
to 45 years for males and to 25 years for females, and are in fourth 
place for the total population of all ages. Of the accidental deaths those 
caused by motor vehicle accidents were the most frequent in this group, 
just as they are in the general population. Eight of the 17 accidental 
deaths among the males and all four of those among females resulted 
from automobile accidents. Of the other 9 men, 4 were killed in air- 
plane crashes and 2 died in industrial accidents. One death resulted 
from each of the following : drowning, accidental gunshot, and a fall 
while mountain climbing. 

Suicide, the third most frequent cause of death in the group, arouses 
particular interest because of the tragedy attached to these deaths and 
the possibility that with help at the proper moment some of them at 
least could have been avoided. Data for accurate comparison of the 
incidence of suicide in the gifted group with that in the generality are 
lacking. The vital statistics reports give only the incidence of suicide 
at a given time in other words, a "snapshot" picture of the situation. 
The prevalence rates mentioned in most of the research studies con- 


cerned with the personality and motivations of the individual who com- 
mits suicide are also cross-sectional, and are limited to a particular 
date or period of time. 

The most helpful information on the amount of suicide in the popu- 
lation at large comes from Dublin and his associates, 13 who have com- 
puted the chances per 1,000 at decennial ages of eventual death from 
certain specified causes. These expectancies are based on the life table 
and death data for the United States during 1939-41. Dublin 10 points 
out that the over-all picture of suicide in the United States shows prac- 
tically no change in rate during the past 50 years, though there have 
been some minor fluctuations, with the highest rates occurring in 1932 
at the bottom of the depression and the lowest rates during wartime. 
Dublin's 1939-41 data can therefore be considered representative of 
the trend of suicide during the lifetime of our group. According to the 
Dublin data, the chances per 1,000 population, age 10 to 19 years, of 
eventually dying by suicide are 17 . 5 for white males and 5 . 5 for white 
females. In terms of percentages, the expected incidence of suicide 
among the total population ia this age interval is approximately 1 . 8 
percent for males and about 0.6 percent for females. As shown in 
Table 6 the suicide rate in the gifted group to 1955 is 1 .2 percent for 
men and 0.7 percent for women. 

Comparison of the data for the gifted with that for the total popu- 
lation should take several factors into account. First, the figures for a 
life table population are derived statistically and, while they serve very- 
well for generalizations, are less applicable to small groups than are 
data based on an actual population. Especially in a group such as ours, 
which is not only relatively small but also heterogeneous as regards 
date of death and age at death, differences from the generality may well 
be caused by chance. In considering the suicide rate, still other aspects 
of the situation should be borne in mind. Among these is the well- 
known and acknowledged fact that all quantitative analyses of suicide 
in the generality are underestimates since many suicides are never so 
reported. Not only may the person committing suicide succeed in 
making his death appear natural or accidental, but also the relatives 
and friends often take pains to conceal the fact that death was self- 
inflicted. In the case of our gifted subjects we have what we believe 
to be full information regarding the cause of death for all but one sub- 
ject This was a woman who had at one time attempted suicide but 
who was also in poor health for a number of years, and the report of 


her death received from a former employer did not suggest suicide. 
Other factors to be considered in appraising the amount of suicide in 
the gifted group are the regional and socio-economic differences in sui- 
cide rate found for the generality. Semelman 30 reports that suicide is 
most frequent in the West, especially in California, with San Francisco 
having one of the highest rates in the nation. Henry and Short, 18 basing 
their conclusions not only on their own studies but also on a survey 
of the work of other investigators, point out the positive relationship 
of suicide to status, both social and economic. Dublin finds that suicide 
is more common in urban than in rural populations and more frequent 
among white than among colored people. On the basis of these findings, 
it appears that the gifted subjects as a group possess the characteristics 
that make for a higher suicide rate : Calif ornian in origin, with approxi- 
mately four-fifths still residing in the state ; chiefly urban ; white ; and 
of superior status from the standpoint of education, occupation, income, 
and achievement. 

Bearing these factors in mind, one hesitates to draw any clear-cut 
conclusions from a comparison of the suicide rate in our group with 
Dublin's expectancy rate. However, on the surface at least, the rate 
for the gifted appears to be high, especially in the case of women who 
have already exceeded the total expectancy given by Dublin: 0.7 per- 
cent for gifted women as compared with 0.6 percent for all women. 
The gifted men are still below the estimate of eventual suicide in a 
10- to 19-year-old cohort : 1.2 percent for the gifted as compared with 
1 . 8 percent for the generality of males. Before closing this discussion, 
mention should be made of the discrepancy in sex differences in suicide 
rate between the gifted group and the total population. All investiga- 
tors report a much higher frequency of suicide among men, ranging 
from 3 to 4 times the incidence among women. Among the gifted sub- 
jects, however, less than twice as many men as women, proportion- 
ately, have committed suicide. One cannot, of course, overlook the pos- 
sibility of a chance difference here owing to the relatively small numbers 

Subjects who have died. The average age at death for those who 
have died was approximately 28 years with a range from 8 to 45 years 
(see Table 5). Their IQ's ranged from 134 to 184 with an average 
of 149. Ten of the deceased were in elementary or high school and 17 
were undergraduate students in college at the time of death. Another 
5 were graduate students. Among those who had completed their 


schooling or were at the graduate student level, 50 percent of the men 
and 38 percent of the women had taken a bachelor's degree and 35 
percent of men and 18 percent of women had attended college for from 
one to four years. The graduate degrees taken include 3 Ph.D/s, 
3 M.D.'s, 3 LL.B.'s, and 5 master's. In addition, two of the graduate 
students among the deceased men were candidates for a master's degree 
and the third was working toward an engineering degree. Both women 
graduate students were on the point of getting a Ph.D., one in astronomy 
and one in psychology. Three of the men were physicians, 3 were law- 
yers, and 2 were members of university faculties. Other occupations 
represented among the deceased men were chemist, business executive, 
musician, advertising and public relations work, mechanic, salesman, 
etc. The majority of the women who died after completing their edu- 
cation were married and occupied as housewives. However, one was 
a college teacher, one a statistician, one a librarian, and one a high- 
school teacher. 


Information on general health, based on interviews with the sub- 
jects and often with the spouses as well, was supplied by the field 
workers in the 1939-40 and the 1950-52 follow-ups. In addition, self- 
ratings by the subjects on physical health were called for in the 1940, 
1950-52, and 1955 information blanks. Table 7 gives the ratings on 


Men Women 

1940 1950 1955 1940 1950 1955 

(N = 700) (N = 750) (N = 714) (N = 563) (N = 601) (N = 567) 
Self-rating % % % % % % 

Very good 52.3 50.5 46.5 44.7 43.3 43.0 

Good 38.6 41.6 44.8 39.0 43.4 45.5 

Fair... 7.3 6.2 7.0 12.7 11.1 8.3 

Poor or very poor 1.9 1.7 1.7 3.7 2.2 3.2 

physical health for the three follow-up dates when the subjects were 
at the approximate average ages of 29, 40, and 44, respectively. These 
are substantially self -ratings, although in a few instances it was neces- 
sary to interpret or modify a self-report in the light of the case history 
evidence. However, such modifications were felt to be warranted in 
less than one percent of the cases. 

It will be noted that the ratings are consistent for each of the three 


reports, with more than 90 percent of the men and from 84 to 88 per- 
cent of the women rating their health as good or very good. The some- 
what lower rating on general health for women is a characteristic sex 
difference that has been found also for men and women in general 7 
Statistics show that among females as a whole morbidity is higher, while 
among males the mortality rate is higher. We have already seen in 
Table 5 that the mortality rate for the gifted men is higher at each age 
than that for the gifted women. 

The questionnaires of 1950-52 and 1955 did not ask for informa- 
tion on height and weight. However, the medical examinations and 
anthropometric measurements that were made following the selection 
of the subjects in the original survey showed the gifted children as a 
group to be above the best standards for American-born children in 
growth status as indicated by both height and weight. The records 
showed that they were also above the established norms for unselected 
California children. 39 According to the information supplied by the 
subjects in 1940, the median height of the adult gifted men was 71.3 
inches and of the adult gifted women, 65 . 2 inches. The average weight 
of the men was 162 . 8 pounds and of the women, 126 . 6 pounds. After 
making allowance for some overstatement in the self-report, it was 
estimated that the gifted men average about one-half inch taller than 
college men in general and about one and one-half inches taller than 
the generality of men in the United States of their generation. Simi- 
larly, gifted women average close to one-half inch taller than college 
women in general and approximately one inch taller than women in the 
total population. The relationship of weight to height appears to be 
about the same in the gifted as in the total population. 36 

Physical defects sufficient to handicap the individual seriously are 
infrequent among our subjects. Nine men are crippled, but only one 
case is sufficiently serious to be disabling ; for most, the impairment is 
no more than a slight limp. In seven cases the crippling resulted from 
poliomyelitis and in the other two cases it was due to a congenital defect. 
Among the women there are seven cases of orthopedic handicap. For 
two of these the difficulty is a congenital hip dislocation which resulted 
in some crippling but not severe enough to prevent independent loco- 
motion. Poliomyelitis has left three other women with slight muscular 
impairment but not greatly handicapped. More seriously afflicted are 
two women who are confined to wheel chairs, one since childhood be- 
cause of crippling arthritis and one as a result of poliomyelitis contracted 


at age 39. The former,, who holds a Ph.D., is a distinguished scholar, 
writer, and university professor. The latter, a lawyer with a well- 
established practice (and also a housewife and mother) when disabled, 
resumed her career as soon as possible and is continuing her law prac- 
tice besides managing her home from her wheel chair. 


The gifted subjects have been rated on mental health and general 
adjustment at various stages of follow-up. The most important sources 
of information have been the personal conferences by the research staff 
with the subjects, their parents, and their spouses; letters from the 
subjects or members of their families, or other qualified informants; 
and responses to questionnaires filled out by the subjects and, in the 
earlier years, by their parents also. The information schedules in the 
follow-up surveys of 1936, 1939-40, 1945, 1950-52, and 1955 all in- 
cluded the question : "Has there been any tendency toward nervous- 
ness, worry, special anxieties or nervous breakdown in recent years? 
. . . nature of such difficulties . . . ." From 1940 on, this item was 
supplemented by a question on how the difficulty, if any, was handled 
and on the present condition of the subject. Each specific kind of in- 
formation obtained was considered in the light of total case history. 

With these accumulated data at hand the mental health and general 
adjustment of each subject was assessed and the subjects classified 
according to three categories as follows: 1, satisfactory adjustment, 
2, some maladjustment, and 3, serious maladjustment. The third cate- 
gory was divided into two sub-groups : 3a, serious problems in ad- 
justment but not severe enough to require hospitalization, and 3^ a 
history of hospitalization for mental illness. These categories corre- 
spond to those used for the 1940 and 1945 ratings 36 and are defined 
as follows : 

1. Satisfactory. Subjects classified in this category were essentially 
normal; i.e., their "desires, emotions, and interests were compatible 
with the social standards and pressures" of their group. 23 Everyone, 
of course, has adjustment problems of one kind or another. Satisfac- 
tory adjustment as here defined does not mean perfect contentment 
and complete absence of problems but, rather, the ability to cope ade- 
quately with difficulties in the personal make-up or in the subject's 
environment. Worry and anxiety when warranted by the circum- 
stances, or a tendency to be somewhat high strung or nervous pro- 


vided such a tendency did not constitute a definite personality problem 
were allowed in this category. 

2. Some maladjustment. Classified here were subjects with exces- 
sive feelings of inadequacy or inferiority, nervous fatigue, mild anxiety 
neurosis, and the like. The emotional conflicts, nervous tendencies, and 
social maladjustments of these individuals, while they presented defi- 
nite problems, were not beyond the ability of the individual to handle, 
and there was no marked interference with social or personal life or 
with achievement. Subjects whose behavior was noticeably odd or 
freakish, but without evidence of serious neurotic tendencies, were also 
classified in this category. 

3. Serious maladjustment. 

a) Classified as 3a were subjects who had shown marked symp- 
toms of anxiety, mental depression, personality maladjustment, or psy- 
chopathic personality. This classification also includes subjects who 
had suffered a "nervous breakdown," provided there had not been a 
mental disorder of sufficient severity to require hospitalization. Sub- 
jects with a previous history of serious maladjustment or so-called 
nervous breakdown were included here even though their adjustment 
at the time of rating may have been entirely satisfactory. 

ft) Classified as 3b were those subjects who at any time had 
suffered a complete mental breakdown requiring hospitalization, what- 
ever their condition at the time of rating. In the majority of cases the 
subjects were restored to reasonably good mental health after a brief 
period of hospital care. 

[NOTE: Attention is called to the fact that ratings 3a and 3b are 
historical in character; i.e., if a person has ever been seriously mal- 
adjusted as defined above, the 3 rating (a or b, according to degree) 
continues to be used even though he may now be greatly improved 
or even free from difficulty.] 

Results of ratings. In 1955 there was sufficient information on 
hand to rate the mental health and general adjustment of approxi- 
mately 98 percent of the 1,396 living subjects with whom contact had 
been maintained.* For the remaining 21 men and 11 women some 

* The 1955 ratings are a composite of the data collected in the 1950-52 field 
follow-up and the 1955 follow-up by mail. Since the 1950-52 data are more extensive, 
they formed the basis for the rating. In 1955 these ratings were brought up to date, 
and any changes in status are shown in the ratings presented here. The 28 subjects 
who had been "lost" since 1928 or earlier are not included in the total of 1,396 sub- 


information was available but it was felt the data were not sufficiently 
complete to permit a definitive rating. However, on the basis of what 
was known about these subjects and their activities, there is no reason 
to believe that any had been hospitalized for mental disorder. Part I 
of Table 8 gives the ratings for the subjects who were living and for 
whom data on mental health and general adjustment were adequate ; 
in Part II of the table the remainder of the original group is ac- 
counted for. 


Men Women 

N % N % 

Part I. Rating 

1. Satisfactory 525 68.8 396 65.9 

2. Some maladjustment 170 22.3 151 25.1 

3. Serious maladjustment 

a) Without mental disease* 47 6.2 36 6.0 

6) Hospitalization for mental illness,. 21 2.7 18 3.0 

Total rated 763 601 

Part II. Not Rated m 1955 

A. Information not complete enough for 

rating, but no record of hospitaliza- 
tion for mental illness 21 11 

B. Deceased before 1955 62 42 

C. No contact since 1928 or earlier and no 

information regarding status of sub- 

ject 11 17 

Total group, living and deceased 857 671 

* Mental disease is defined as hospitalization for mental illness. (C. discussion on pp. 41- 

Of the 763 men and 601 women rated for general adjustment, better 
than two-thirds of the men and close to two-thirds of the women were 
considered satisfactory in adjustment. Somewhat more than one-fifth 
of the men and one-fourth of the women were rated in category 2 and 
the 9 percent of each sex who had experienced serious difficulty were 
classified in category 3. When this latter category is broken into sub- 
groups, we find that 6 percent fall in the 3 a group, that is, a history of 
serious maladjustment but without reaching the severity of a mental 
breakdown. The approximate 3 percent classified as 3b all had a his- 
tory of hospitalization for mental illness. The percentages in the 3& 
category would be somewhat reduced if the 21 men and 11 women of 


Part II-A of Table 8 were included in the total number. Although not 
enough was known about these additional cases to rate them on gen- 
eral adjustment, there is no evidence that any has been hospitalized for 
mental illness. 

As indicated in the definitions, ratings of "some" or "serious" mal- 
adjustment were given on the basis of total case history data and do 
not necessarily represent the current status of the subject. This method 
of rating was used to show the extent to which our group had suffered 
from problems of personality or emotional adjustment regardless of 
whether the difficulty had been overcome. It is important, therefore, 
to view the ratings on adjustment in the light of the estimates of "pres- 
ent condition" called for in the Information Blank as a supplement to 
the question regarding nervous and emotional difficulties. Information 
on present condition was available for 235 men and 202 women, or all 
but 3 men and 3 women among those who were rated either 2 (some 
maladjustment) or 3 (serious maladjustment). Although self-estimates 
of this kind are subject to error, the replies were checked against the 
field worker reports and other case history data for verification and only 
occasionally was it necessary to modify the response of the subject. In 
the few cases in which the subject omitted a reply to the query on present 
condition, the information, if available from other sources, was sup- 
plied. The estimates of present condition for subjects rated 2 or 3 were 
distributed as follows : 


Present Condition Men Women 

Free from difficulty 21 16 

Improved 55 68 

No change 20 12 

Worse 4 4 

It is especially interesting to find that of the 39 subjects living in 
1955 who had undergone hospitalization for mental illness, 28 rate their 
present condition as improved, and 2 report themselves as free from 
difficulty. Another 4 of those rated 3b say there has been no change, 
and 5 rate their condition as "worse." 

So far our discussion of general adjustment has been limited to 
subjects who were living in 1955 and who could, therefore, be rated 
on general adjustment. However, to get the full picture of the gifted 
group from the standpoint of mental health, account should be taken 
of the subjects who have died. In view of the wide range in date of 


death (1923 to 1954) and age at death (8 years to 48 years), it would 
not be practical to attempt to classify the deceased according to the 
mental adjustment categories ; however, those with a history of hos- 
pitalization can be used in an extension of category 3b to include the 
deceased. Of the 104 subjects who had died by 1955, five men and four 
women had, at some time, been patients in a mental hospital. When 
the 62 deceased men and 42 deceased women are added to the number 
of each sex rated (Part I, Table 8), the results are as follows for the 
825 men and 643 women, living and deceased, whose status could be 
evaluated : 

Men Women 

N % N % 

No record of hospitalization for mental illness 799 96.9 621 96.6 

History of hospitalization 26 3.1 22 3.4 

Subjects with a history of mental disorder. The figures of 3 . 1 per- 
cent for men and 3.4 percent for women include all subjects, whether 
presently living or deceased, who have ever been admitted to a hospital 
or sanitarium for the care of the mentally ill regardless of the serious- 
ness of the illness or the length of the hospitalization. In most cases 
the illness was comparatively mild and the hospitalization brief, some 
less than three months, few more than a year. However, there have been 
7 cases of prolonged hospitalization. These included 2 epileptics, both 
men, one of whom died in the hospital at the age of 30. He had suf- 
fered from epilepsy most of his life but the illness did not become dis- 
abling until he was about 20 years old. Before hospitalization became 
necessary he had completed one and one-half years of college work. 
In the case of the second man, the onset of epilepsy in recognizable 
form took place after college graduation just as he was embarking on 
a professional career. After a brief hospitalization he was able to take 
a clerical job and worked for some years. Apparently recovered, he 
returned to the university for a year of graduate work with the purpose 
of re-entering his chosen profession. However, a recurrence of the 
epilepsy sent him back to the hospital. The next few years saw him in 
and out of hospitals and working at simple occupations when able. 
Finally the illness became so severe that institutional care became neces- 
sary and he has now been hospitalized for nearly ten years. 

A third man, hospitalized for three and one-half years as a schizo- 
phrenic, was recently released. While he has not fully recovered, it was 
felt that his improvement was sufficient to permit home care. 


The 4 women with prolonged illness include one now age 40 who 
became ill when she was a university student and was sent to a private 
sanitarium where she has been for the past twenty years. The diag- 
nosis was dementia praecox and at last report the outlook for ultimate 
recovery was poor. Another woman who had completed her education, 
married, and had 2 children, was stricken with encephalitis at the age 
of 31 with resulting brain damage so serious that she has been inca- 
pacitated ever since her illness nearly fifteen years ago. The third of 
the 4 women with prolonged illness presents a brighter picture. This 
woman, who is unmarried, completed college with an excellent record. 
Several years of successful employment followed until her first break- 
down at age 29, After three mental breakdowns with brief hO'Spitaliza- 
tions, her condition became so much more serious that she was com- 
mitted to a state hospital with a diagnosis of dementia praecox, paranoid 
type. During her twelve-year stay in the hospital she was able, with 
the exception of occasional brief periods, to do secretarial and library 
work with great efficiency. By 19S4 her mental health had so improved 
that she was released from the hospital on a home-care basis. Her 
ultimate discharge will depend on how full and permanent her recovery 
proves to be. 

The fourth woman requiring lengthy hospitalization went into a 
state hospital after six weeks in a private sanitarium. She was then 
32 years old, single, with two years of college education, and had been 
employed as a secretary for a number of years. The diagnosis was 
dementia praecox, mixed type. After nearly three years in the hospital 
she was released only to have a recurrence three years later, which 
again necessitated hospitalization. A year later she was discharged and, 
so far as is known, has had no further relapses. 

Except for alcoholism in the case of men, the manic-depressive states 
have been the most frequent type of disorder. The frequencies of the 
various kinds of mental illness classified according to primary diagnosis 
where available were as follows : 

Men Women 

N N 

Alcoholism 10 3 

Epilepsy 2 

Manic-depressive state 7 8 

Psychoneurosis 5 4 

Schizophrenia (dementia praecox) 2 6 

Traumatic brain lesion 1 


In all but one case (reported directly from the attending physician in a 
personal communication) our information on the nature of the illness 
has come from the subject or a close family member, and the diagnosis 
often but not always confirmed by medical authorities. In the hospital- 
ized cases reported simply as "nervous breakdown" or similarly, we are 
especially uncertain of the nature of the illness and, lacking full informa- 
tion for these cases, we have classified them under the heading of psy- 
choneurosis. The total number of hospitalizations is so small that per- 
centages have not been computed for the various mental disease classi- 
fications, since they would not be comparable to the proportions in the 
various mental illness categories for hospital admissions in general. A 
comparison with the generality of admissions would also be distorted 
by the age range of our group. As one would expect, we have no cases 
of organic psychoses resulting from vascular disease characteristic of 
later life. 

The ages at hospitalization (first admission if more than one) for 
the subjects, both living and deceased, with a history of mental illness 
were distributed as follows : 

Men Women. 

Age in Years N N 

10-19 2 

20-29 6 6 

30-39 15 8 

40-49 5 6 

The IQ's of these subjects ranged from 140 to 180 and their schooling 
varied from high-school graduation to several years of university gradu- 
ate work. All but 6 of the men had had some college work and 14 had 
graduated from college. The latter included 3 men with an M.D. and 
4 with an LL.B. degree. Eleven of the women were college graduates 
and 3 had also taken a graduate degree. Another 8 women attended 
college for from one to three years and 2 had only a high-school educa- 
tion. In addition, there are 2 subjects (1 man and 1 woman) among 
those hospitalized who died before completing their education. Both 
had taken approximately two years of college work. 

Comparison of mental disease among the gifted group with the rate 
for the generality. The criterion most widely used in studies of the 
frequency of mental disease in the United States is the number of ad- 
missions to hospitals for the care of the mentally ill, since that is the 
only objective yardstick available. The term "expectation of mental 


disease" is used to describe the chances of being hospitalized (first time, 
if more than once) in an institution, either public or private, for the 
care of the mentally ill. In contrast to the prevalence measures which 
give the proportion of a given population hospitalized at a specified 
time, the expectancy measure gives the cumulative probability of admis- 
sion to a mental hospital. This is the sort of information needed for 
comparison with the rate of mental disease in the gifted group where 
the data are also cumulative. 

Different methods of calculating the expectancy of mental disease 
yield somewhat different estimates, but careful investigations such as 
those of Malzberg 26 and of Goldhamer and Marshall 15 indicate that 8 
to 10 percent of the U.S. population will be admitted to a hospital for 
the care of the mentally ill at some time during their lives.* Malzberg's 
expectancy tables, which follow the principle of the life table, show that 
of 1,000 population alive and sane at 10 years of age, 85.4 males and 
85.9 females will develop a mental disease. Goldhamer and Marshall 
suggest a different method of calculation, which gives first admission 
expectancy for a member of a particular population group if he survives 
to a specified later age. This "conditional expectancy" rate is in con- 
trast to the Malzberg data which give a joint expectancy, i.e., the com- 
bined probability of survival and of admission to a mental hospital. 
Both methods serve a purpose and their relative merit cannot be evalu- 
ated here. The Goldhamer-Marshall conditional expectancy rates, 
however, are more appropriate to our data and so will be used in the 
following comparisons of the gifted with the generality. 

According to the conditional expectancy tables, of those who survive 
to the age of 75, about 1 in 10 persons will be hospitalized. More perti- 
nent to the current data for our gifted group than lifetime expectancies 
of mental disease are the chances of hospitalization to mid-life. This 
information also is available in the Goldhamer-Marshall tables which 
give the conditional expectancy between specified initial and later ages. 
For comparison with the data for the gifted, we have chosen the initial 
age of 10,f which is near the average age of the subjects when selected 

* Malzberg, and Goldhamer and Marshall have based their calculations of the 
expectancy of mental disease on the 1940 first admission rates to state and licensed 
institutions, public or private, in New York State. It is believed that these figures 
would agree fairly closely with the expectancy rates in those areas where adequate 
facilities are available for the care of the mentally ill. California, in which 80 percent 
of our subjects reside, is one of these. 

f Since the Goldhamer-Marshall data are reported for quinquennial ages, 10 
years is the nearest to the average age (about 11 years) of our group when selected 
for study. 


for study and the terminal ages of 40, 45, and 50. These later ages 
approximate the age distribution of the gifted subjects in 1955 when 
the median age was about 44 years. Although the actual age range in 
the gifted group was about 20 years, 84 percent were born between the 
years 1905 and 1915, inclusive, and so were between the ages of 40 and 
50 in 1955. According to the conditional expectancy table the chances 
in 100 of admission to a mental hospital between age 10 and the speci- 
fied later ages for the general population are as follows : 

Percentage of General Population 
Terminal age Male Female 

40 2.8 2.4 

45 3.4 3.0 

50 4.2 3.7 

The proportion of gifted subjects, including the deceased, who had 
been hospitalized for mental illness up to an average age of about 44 
years (1955) was 3 . 1 percent for men and 3.4 percent for women. A 
comparison of these figures with the Goldhamer-Marshall data shows 
the incidence among gifted men to be slightly below the expectancy for 
the male population of comparable age, and among gifted women, 
slightly above the expectancy. Probably neither sex differs greatly from 
the generality in the frequency of mental disease. One should not over- 
look the possibility that the rate of hospitalization among the gifted 
may be related to some extent to their generally superior status ; not 
only intellectual which may give them insight into their needs, but 
also socio-economic which makes it possible for them to seek aid. The 
majority of the hospitalizations have been voluntary and a large pro- 
portion have been in private institutions. On the basis of Malzberg's 
more than 8 percent expectancy of eventual mental disease and the 
Goldhamer-Marshall approximate 10 percent expectancy to age 75, it 
is questionable if the incidence of mental disease in the gifted group will 
exceed the expectancy for the generality, particularly because of cer- 
tain inverse relationships that have been found between educational- 
social-economic status and mental disease rate in later maturity. 28 To 
equal the expectancy, the present incidence of slightly over 3 percent in 
our total group would have to be almost tripled. Whether the extent of 
mental disorder reaches that proportion remains to be seen. 

Suicide and mental disorder. As reported earlier in this chapter, 
10 men and 5 women had committed suicide by 1955. Of these 15 sub- 
jects, one man and two women had been hospitalized for mental ill- 


ness, and only these three cases among the suicides are considered to 
have a history of mental disease as we have defined it. There is no 
doubt that death forestalled eventual hospitalization of additional per- 
sons among the suicides. In other cases, however, although there had 
been indications of maladjustment, the difficulties had not appeared to 
be serious enough to constitute mental disease and in two cases, both 
women, there had been no evidence of a serious adjustment problem. 
Opinion is divided among psychiatric authorities as to whether it is 
only the psychotic individual who takes his own life. Though many 
leading psychiatrists hold this opinion, there are others who believe 
that the "sane" individual also may commit suicide. Dublin and Bun- 
zell, 11 whose study of suicide is one of the best in the field, feel that in 
view of the conflicting psychiatric opinions it is extreme to assert that 
all suicides are insane unless it is assumed a priori that self-destruc- 
tion is in itself a definite indication of psychosis. These authors do not 
concur in such an assumption, but believe, rather, that suicide does occur 
among individuals who should be designated as sane, even though it 
is a far greater hazard among sufferers from mental disease. 

Whether or not suicide is considered a psychotic manifestation 
per se does not affect our comparison of the incidence of mental disease 
in the gifted group with that in the generality since, in both cases, mental 
disease is defined as admission to a hospital for the treatment of the 
mentally ill. 

Use of liquor among the gifted subjects. Our records show that for 
10 men and 3 women the precipitating cause of hospitalization in a 
mental institution was alcoholism, regardless of whatever underlying 
personality disorders there may have been. Furthermore, among those 
hospitalized for functional psychoses, 2 men and 1 woman had a serious 
alcohol problem as well, although this was not the primary reason for 
hospitalization. In addition to the information on alcohol as a problem 
among the subjects with a history of mental disease, considerable data 
have also been obtained on the extent to which alcohol is used by the 
group as a whole. The General Information Blanks of 1940 and 1950 
included a specific question on this matter calling for the individual to 
rate himself according to several categories on the use of liquor. In 
1950 this item was presented in the following form: 

Use of Liquor. (Check the statement below that most nearly describes you) 

1 never take a drink, or only on rare occasions. 

1 am a moderate drinker. I have seldom or never been intoxicated. 


1 am a fairly heavy drinker; I drink to excess rather frequently 

but do not feel that it has interfered seriously with my work or 
relationships with others. 

Alcohol is a serious problem. I am frequently drunk and attempts 

to stop drinking have been unsuccessful. 

A questionnaire never provides for all the exceptions and variations 
found in the responses given by the individuals. From the comments 
of the respondents to this item, it was possible to add a fifth category 
to the four presented in the information blank. This category included 
those with a history of excessive drinking who no longer drink at all 
or who drink only moderately. The classification of the subjects ac- 
cording to use of liquor was based on a composite of the self -ratings, 
the field worker reports, and other pertinent case history information. 
The results of the ratings on use of liquor (as of 1950-52) are given in 
Table 9. 


Men Women 

N % N % 

A. Never, or only rarely, take a drink ..... 127 16.9 194 32.4 

B. Moderate drinker 520 69.0 369 61.7 

C. Fairly heavy drinker 87 11.6 29 4.9 

D. Alcohol is a serious problem 10 1.3 3 0. 5 

E. Formerly a serious problem, now under 

control 9 1.2 3 0.5 

It is interesting to find that about 17 percent of men and 32 percent 
of women never, or only on rare occasions, use alcoholic drinks and that 
another 69 percent of men and 62 percent of women describe themselves 
as moderate drinkers. About 12 percent of men and slightly more than 
5 percent of women are classified as heavy or problem drinkers. Per- 
sons classified in categories D and E of Table 9 were considered to be, 
or to have been, alcoholics in the sense of the World Health Organiza- 
tion definition of alcoholism.* On the basis of this definition, 10 men 
and 3 women were rated as alcoholics in 1950-52. Another 9 men and 
3 women had been problem drinkers in the past but were now able to 

* The definition adopted by the World Health Organization in 1951 is as follows : 
"Alcoholics are those excessive drinkers whose dependence upon alcohol has attained 
such a degree that it shows a noticeable mental disturbance, or an interference with 
their bodily or mental health, their interpersonal relations, and their smooth social 
and economic functioning ; or who show the prodromal signs of such developments." 


control the difficulty. The E category of Table 9 includes 3 men who 
had been hospitalized for alcoholism. While others in this category 
received psychiatric or psychological aid, the majority attribute their 
success in overcoming excessive drinking to Alcoholics Anonymous. 

The data in Table 9 represent the status of the group at a particular 
period of time in contrast to the mental health ratings which are his- 
torical in nature. It is possible, therefore, to compare the current extent 
of alcoholism in our group with figures for the generality. Jellinek and 
Keller 20 report that in 1948 the rate of alcoholism in the United States, 
as defined by the World Health Organization, was 3,952 per 100,000 
adult population (roughly 4 percent). The United States rate was also 
computed separately by sex and showed an alcoholism rate of about 
7 percent for men and slightly more than 1 percent for women. The 
highest rates, according to these investigators, are found in Nevada, 
California, and New York. In California, where approximately four- 
fifths of the gifted group reside, the 1948 alcoholism rate was 6,888 
per 100,000 adult population (sexes combined). Separate figures ac- 
cording to sex were not reported for the individual states, but on the 
basis of these figures it is clear that the California rate for each sex is 
considerably higher than the 7 percent of men and 1 percent of women 
alcoholics reported for the total U.S. population. In contrast, only 
about 1 percent of gifted men and one-half of 1 percent of gifted women 
were classified as alcoholics. 

Crime and delinquency. As shown in our earlier report, 36 the inci- 
dence of crime and delinquency is very low. Three subjects (all boys) 
had youthful records of delinquency that resulted in their being sent 
to a juvenile reformatory. In addition, one man served a term of sev- 
eral years in prison for forgery. All four of these are married, employed, 
and fulfilling their duties as responsible citizens. Three other boys came 
before the Juvenile Court for behavior difficulties but after brief deten- 
tion were released to their parents. Among the gifted women only two 
are known to have had encounters with the police. Both were arrested 
for vagrancy and one served a jail sentence. Although each of these 
women has a history of several marriages, both seem to have become 
much more stable in recent years, and to have made normal behavioral 

Problems of sex. Information on sex problems is available from 
the various case history reports and information schedules supplied by 
subjects, parents, and field workers over the years of follow-up. Espe- 


daily pertinent were the questionnaires on personality and tempera- 
ment (1940) and marital adjustment (1940 and 1950), and particularly 
the Supplementary Biographical Data blank filled out in the 1950-52 
follow-up. This blank included a direct question regarding sex prob- 
lems, worded as follows : "Either in childhood or later have there been 
any major problems or marked difficulties related to sex?" 

Of those who filled out this blank, 78 percent of men and 77 per- 
cent of women indicated the absence of any serious sex problems. The 
problems mentioned by the remaining 22 or 23 percent of the group 
covered a wide range over both the nature and the gravity of the diffi- 
culty. The most frequent problem was that of sexual adjustment in 
marriage, mentioned by 4. 6 percent of men and 6. 5 percent of women. 
For approximately the same number of men (4.5%), the problem in- 
volved shyness, awkwardness, fear of failure, or rebuff in relations with 
the opposite sex, but less than 2 percent of women mentioned this prob- 
lem. Aversion to- sex or feelings of guilt constituted a sex adjustment 
problem for 4 percent of women and 1 percent of men. Masturbation 
was mentioned as having been a source of difficulty (chiefly in child- 
hood and adolescence) by 4 percent of men and 2 percent of women. 
About 2 percent of both men and women reported concern about a high 
degree of sex drive (considered it above average) while an equal num- 
ber of men and somewhat more women (3.5%) felt that their problem 
was a lack or decline of sex drive and interest. Other factors mentioned 
as making adjustment difficult were lack of sex education (less than 1% 
of men and slightly more than 1 % of women) and early sex experience 
or sex shock in childhood or youth (0 . 3 % of men and 1 . 3 % of women) . 
Except for homosexuality, the other problems listed were relatively 
minor and none was cited by more than 1 percent of either sex. 

The sex problems so far discussed, though presenting difficulty for 
the individual, have not been of the dimensions to constitute an aber- 
ration or an insuperable obstacle to adjustment for the individual. 
Homosexuality, on the other hand, is a deviation of such serious pro- 
portions involving both personal and social adjustment that its inci- 
dence in the gifted group has been reserved for separate discussion. 
Our concern here is with subjects who have had homosexual experi- 
ences and for whom heterosexual adjustment has been difficult or im- 
possible. Homosexuality, thus defined, has been reported for 17 men 
(2%) and 11 women (1.7%). Undoubtedly, there are, in addition, 
instances of latent homosexuality in which there has been no overt ex- 


pression or even recognition of the tendency. Estimates of the preva- 
lence of homosexuality in the general population vary, but all authori- 
ties put the incidence well above that found in our study. The most 
recent and best known investigation of sex behavior is that of Kinsey 
and his associates 21 who report that 25 percent of the male population 
between ages 16 and 55 have more than incidental experience and that 
4 percent of white males are exclusively homosexual throughout their 
lives. Kinsey finds homosexuality much less common among females 
with an estimated frequency of from one-half to one-third of that re- 
ported for males. The figures for both sexes in the general population 
give an incidence many times that found for the gifted subjects. In 
contrast to Kinsey's report, that homosexuality occurs among 25 per- 
cent of males and 8 to 12 percent of females, only 2 percent of gifted 
men and 1 . 7 percent of gifted women are known to be presently homo- 
sexual or to have had homosexual experiences. It is possible that a 
very few cases have escaped our notice ; however, our data are so com- 
plete that these few, if there are any, would not increase the incidence 
of homosexuality significantly. 

Ten, or somewhat more than half, of the 17 gifted men classified as 
homosexual are exclusively so. These include 9 who are overt homo- 
sexuals, and except for one case, none of these men has ever married. 
In the one case, the marriage was of short duration and ended in di- 
vorce. Another man, well aware of his basic homosexuality, has ab- 
stained from overt manifestation. He has found an outlet in a highly 
successful career in the arts, and appears to have achieved an effective 
sublimation of his homosexuality. Six of the 17 men with a homosexual 
history have married and have made a reasonably satisfactory hetero- 
sexual adjustment. The remaining man, though he had not married, 
was reported to be making a successful transition to heterosexuality 
when he was killed in an accident. 

All but one of the 11 women in the gifted group who> have had 
homosexual experiences have married, and six of the marriages are 
apparently successful. In two cases the marriage broke up within a very 
short time and the women resumed a homosexual pattern of life. An- 
other woman has had three unsuccessful marriages and at last report 
was living as a homosexual. One of the women who was married briefly 
has long been a mental patient and is reported by the hospital as an 
overt homosexual. The remaining woman has never married but has 
had heterosexual as well as homosexual experiences. 


There is no doubt that homosexuality has interfered with the per- 
sonal and social adjustment of these persons. For four men and two 
women, alcohol became a serious problem, resulting in hospitalization 
for two of the men and both women. On the other hand, at least 5 of 
the male homosexuals are rated among our vocationally most success- 
ful men. 

Relation of general adjustment to education and intelligence. Be- 
cause only about one-half of those who have suffered from mental dis- 
ease are college graduates in contrast to the nearly 70 percent of the 
total group who completed college, a relationship between general ad- 
justment and amount of education among the gifted might be suspected. 
In the case of men, at least, this indication is not borne out by the com- 
plete record. A comparison of the extent of schooling with general 
adjustment rating shows practically no difference for men at three levels 
of education. Actually, what difference there is favors the men who 
did not go to college. The college graduates and the group who attended 
college one or more years without graduating have almost precisely 
the same proportion of satisfactory ratings. For the women, on the 
other hand, there is evidence that the present status of those who did 
not go to college or who entered but did not complete college is less 
satisfactory with respect to general adjustment than that of the college 
graduates. Table 10 compares the ratings on general adjustment ac- 
cording to educational level. 


Men Women 

College College 1 No College College 1 No 

General Graduates to 4 years College Graduates to 4 years College 

Adjustment (N = 536) (N = 127) (N = 100) (N = 401) (N = 99) (N = 101) 
Rating %%%%%% 

1. Satisfactory . 68.9 68.5 73.3 69.2 57.8 57.6 

2. Some malad- 

justment.. 22.8 20.7 22.1 24.1 26.7 30.6 

3. Serious malad- 

justment.. 8.3 10.8 4.6 6.7 15.5 11.8 

In spite of the lack of relationship of schooling to general adjust- 
ment for men and the tendency for the women with less education to 
be less well adjusted, there is a significant positive relationship between 
scores on our difficult test of intelligence (Concept Mastery test) and 
general adjustment rating. This is true even though Concept Mastery 


test scores tend to increase with amount of education (see Chapter V). 
The difference in mean score between those rated satisfactory and those 
with some or serious difficulty in adjustment is significant for both 
sexes (P= .001 for men and .01 for women). Table 11 gives the 
mean Concept Mastery score according to the three general adjustment 
categories for the 551 men and 453 women who took this test in 1950-52. 



_ , . ,. Men Women 

General Adjustment 

Rating N Mean Score S.D. N Mean Score S.D. 

1. Satisfactory 391 136.4 26.2 303 130.8 27.7 

2. Some maladjustment .... 120 145.6 26.1 117 138.1 26.4 

3. Serious maladjustment .. 40 152.8 23.8 33 140.0 29.6 


When the data on general adjustment are reviewed, we find a small 
but fairly consistent sex difference in the direction of more maladjust- 
ment among gifted women than among the men of our group. These 
sex differences must be interpreted with caution, especially where com- 
parisons are made with the generality. The relatively small number of 
gifted subjects involved magnifies the importance of each case in com- 
paring the incidence of various problems in our group with that re- 
ported for the total population. With these qualifications, a discussion 
of the sex differences follows. 

A slightly larger proportion of women than men have suffered a 
mental disorder serious enough to require hospitalization (3.4% of 
women and 3.1% of men). In the incidence of suicide, although the 
pattern agrees with that for the total population in which more men 
than women commit suicide, the sex difference in rate is considerably 
less for the gifted than that found for the general population. In the 
country as a whole, the suicide rate for males is three to four times that 
for females; among the gifted, the rate, proportionately, is less than 
twice as high for men as for women. 

The problem of small numbers confronts us in comparing the sex 
difference in excessive use of alcohol. The 10 men and 3 women who 
could be considered alcoholics in 1950, according to the World Health 
Organization definition, constitute 1.3 percent of men and 0.5 per- 


cent of women. These figures indicate a frequency three times as great 
for gifted men as that for gifted women. On the other hand, authori- 
ties 20 report that in the total U.S. population alcoholism is found 6 to 
7 times more frequently among men than among women. The same 
difficulty with numbers occurs in evaluating the extent of homosexual- 
ity, where 17 men (2.0%) and 11 women (1.7%) are known to be 
or to have been homosexual. In contrast to this small difference, Kin- 
sey 22 estimates for the generality that homosexuality is from one-half 
to one-third less frequent among females than among males. 

In crime and delinquency, on the other hand, the women have a con- 
siderably better record than do the men. None has been in prison and 
none in reform school, though two are known to have been arrested 
for vagrancy. 

In the broader areas of the relationship of general adjustment to 
education and intelligence test scores, we find some additional sex dif- 
ferences. Considerably more women than men who discontinued their 
schooling below the college graduate level are rated as having either 
some or serious difficulty in adjustment. There is no sex difference, 
however, in the general adjustment ratings of college graduates. The 
data on the relation of intelligence test scores to general adjustment 
are not consistent. For the childhood Binet IQ, maladjustment among 
women is more frequent at the highest level (IQ 170 and above) but 
there is no difference in adjustment rating according to IQ level for 
men. In Concept Mastery scores, on the other hand, the sex difference 
is in the other direction. Although the less well-adjusted of both sexes 
score higher on the average than do those rated satisfactory, the differ- 
ences in score according to adjustment rating are greater for men. 



The measure of adult intelligence has been regarded as an essential and 
fundamental part of the follow-up program in our longitudinal study 
of intellectually superior children. It is as important to know the rela- 
tionship between adult intelligence and early mental status as it is to 
compare the adult gifted subjects with both the general population and 
selected populations in intellectual ability. The first adult testing was 
undertaken in the 1939-40 follow-up when the subjects averaged 29.5 
years of age. A test was needed that could be administered to a group 
in a brief period, that was sufficiently difficult to differentiate at a very 
high level, and that would yield a statistically reliable measure of in- 
tellectual functions similar to those brought into play by the Stanford- 
Binet Scale and other tests highly saturated with Spearman's "g" 
(general intelligence) . 


Because there was no suitable test available, it was decided to con- 
struct one that would meet our requirements. Before deciding upon the 
content of the proposed test we made a survey of the results yielded by 
the leading types of intelligence tests : their reliabilities, their validities 
as measures of "intellect," and their relative efficiency per unit of time, 
As a result of this survey two types of tests were chosen : the synonym- 
antonym test and the analogies test. A large battery of items was given 
to a group of 136 university students and an item analysis of the test 
results yielded 190 items which discriminated reliably between the top 
and bottom half on the basis of total score of the population tested. The 
1939 test in its final form was divided into two parts, each arranged 
according to order of difficulty. Part I Synonym-Antonym consisted 
of 120 pairs of words to which the subject responds with "same" or 
"opposite," and Part II Analogies was made up of 70 statements in 
which the subject chooses the fourth term of the equation from a choice 



of three responses. There is no time limit ; however, those for whom 
the test is applicable usually complete it in from thirty to forty min- 

Both the synonym-antonym test and the analogies test are of the 
type commonly designated as "verbal." They are not as exclusively 
linguistic, however, as they appear to be. It is possible to devise verbal 
tests that measure not only vocabulary but a wide variety of informa- 
tion. In the selection of items, an effort was made to tap as many fields 
as possible by the use of concepts related to physical and biological 
science, mathematics, geography, history, logic, literature, art, religion, 
music, sports, et cetera. The test has been named the Concept Mastery 
test because it deals chiefly with abstract ideas. Abstractions are the 
shorthand of the higher thought process, and a subject's ability to func- 
tion at the upper intellectual levels is determined largely by the num- 
ber and variety of concepts at his command and on his ability to see 
relationships between them. 

It should go without saying that neither this nor any other test of 
intelligence measures native ability uninfluenced by schooling and other 
environmental factors. Like other group intelligence tests of the ver- 
bal type, its scores are probably more influenced by such factors than 
are scores on the Stanford-Binet. Although no amount of educational 
effort can furnish the naturally dull mind with a rich store of abstract 
ideas, it is obvious that one's wealth of concepts must inevitably reflect 
in some degree the extent of his formal education, the breadth of his 
reading, and the cultural level of his environment. The surprising thing 
is that despite such influences there are subjects in our gifted group 
with only a high-school education who score as high on the Concept 
Mastery test as others who have taken graduate degrees in superior 
universities and are successful lawyers, doctors, and college teachers. 

Another merit of the Concept Mastery test is that it measures power-- 
rather than speed. Several studies have shown that the speed of mental 
processes declines more in middle and later maturity than does the level 
of power. Chess champions, for example, may retain most of their 
superb playing ability to an advanced age a type of ability that de- 
mands a high degree of constructive imagination and abstract reason- 
ing. Verbal abilities, even more notably, tend to survive the hazards- 
of age. Sward's professors emeriti in the sixties and seventies scored 
as high in a difficult vocabulary test as his matched group of young 
university teachers ages twenty-five to thirty-five, 32 Specialized skills 


often atrophy from disuse, but one's thinking" all life long involves the 
manipulation of concepts. The ability to deal with concepts is there- 
fore one of the fairest measures of intellectual power from middle age 
onward, provided cultural opportunities have not been unduly limited. 
This test has been described at length in Chapters XI and XII of The 
Gifted Child Grows Up. 36 

During the course of the 1939-40 follow-up the Concept Mastery 
test was administered to 954 gifted subjects and to 527 of their spouses. 
For comparative purposes the test was also given to six additional 
groups comprising 466 subjects. Although there appeared to be some 
drop in IQ, as estimated from the CMT scores, beyond the expected 
statistical regression due to errors of measurement and failure of the 
childhood and adult tests to measure the same functions, the gifted 
group at a mean age of about 30 years was, on the average, still within 
the 98th or 99th percentile of the generality. Furthermore, compari- 
son of the CMT scores of the gifted subjects with those of other groups 
tested showed the former to rank far above the average level of ability 
of students in top-ranking universities. 

For the retesting of the group in the 1950-52 follow-up, a second 
form of the Concept Mastery test* was devised. Tests of reliability 
and validity show the second form (Form T) to be as good as, and prob- 
ably superior in many ways to, the 1939 test (later designated as 
Form A). For the preliminary item selection, a battery of 435 new 
items plus the 190 from Form A were given to 764 subjects at four 
educational levels. These included 214 ninth-grade students, 222 
twelfth-grade students, 219 college-undergraduate students, and 109 
graduate students. As in Form A, items were selected on the basis of 
the extent to which they discriminated between the upper and lower 
half on the basis of total score of the populations tested. The tryout 
batteries made it possible not only to select the items for Form T with 
confidence in their validity and degree of difficulty, but also to match 
Form T with Form A items for both difficulty and content. Form T 
differs from Form A, however, in the addition of easier items extend- 
ing the scale downward, and in the elimination of some of the excess 
top in Form A. The surplus of top in Form A was limited to the syno- 
nym-antonym section in which the 10 or 15 most difficult items were 

^ revision was published in 1956 by The Psychological Corporation, 

New York City, as the Concept Mastery Test- Form T and will be referred to as 
Form T in this volume. In prior publications this form is referred to as Form B. 


so seldom answered that they contributed little to the test. Additional 
items at the lower end of the scale in both sections were needed to 
measure adequately the less highly selected groups with which it was 
desired to compare the gifted, as well as to allow for possible regres- 
sion with age of the gifted subjects themselves. Ten easier synonym- 
antonyms and 5 easier analogies were added to Form T, and 15 of the 
most difficult synonym-antonyms were eliminated. The final Form T 
scale consists of 190 items, 115 synonym-antonyms, and 75 analogies.* 
Evidence of the reliability of the Concept Mastery test was obtained 
by correlating Form T with Form A. Test-retest data were available 
for four groups who took both forms. Group 1 consisted of 108 Stan- 
ford University undergraduates, and 40 graduate students and teach- 
ing assistants at the University of California. Group 2 included 341 
Air Force captains tested by the Institute of Personality Assessment 
and Research of the University of California. The 768 gifted subjects 
and the 334 spouses of the gifted who took both forms made up Groups 
3 and 4. For the first two groups the interval between test and retest 
was from one day to one week, with the order of presentation of the 
two forms being alternated. In the case of the gifted subjects and their 
spouses the reliability coefficients were obtained from a comparison of 
the Form A scores of 1939-40 with the Form T scores of 1950-52 for 
those individuals who took the CMT at both times. The time interval 
between testings for the last two groups was from 11 to 12 years. As 
shown in Table 12, the test-retest correlations for these various groups 
ranged from .94 to .86. Since Form A was a slightly more difficult 
test it may be assumed that the reliability coefficients are somewhat 



Form A Form T 

Group N r Mean S.D. Mean S.D. 

Undergraduate and Graduate 

Students and Teaching 

Assistants (Stanford and 

University of California) 148 .94 74.6 36.5 95.6 39.4 

Air Force Captains 341 .86 42.8 24.5 60.2 31 .3 

Subj ects of Gifted Study ... 768 .87 96.9 29.8 136.7 28.5 
Spouses of Gifted Subjects.. 334 .92 62.1 35.2 95.3 42.7 

* As stated earlier, Form A also contained 190 items ; however, the synonym- 
antonyms numbered 120 and the analogies 70. 


lower than would be found in correlating two comparable forms of the 
Concept Mastery test. 


During the 1950-52 follow-up the Concept Mastery test* was ad- 
ministered by the field workers to a total of 1,004 gifted subjects and 
690 spouses of the gifted. Table 13 gives the distributions of scores with 
means and standard deviations separately for men and women of the 
gifted and spouse groups. 



Gifted Subjects Spouses of Gifted Subjects 

Score Interval Men Women Total Husbands Wives Total 

180-189 16 4 20 314 

170-179 60 31 91 48 12 

160-169 76 46 122 18 13 31 

150-159 84 62 146 20 18 38 

140-149 68 71 139 17 20 37 

130-139 73 60 133 25 25 50 

120-129' 54 52 106 23 25 48 

110-119 34 42 76 23 33 56 

100-109 30 23 53 15 36 51 

90-99 20 25 45 11 35 46 

80-89 13 18 31 19 31 50 

70-79 9 9 18 23 31 54 

60-69 9 5 14 21 32 53 

50-59 246 18 26 44 

40-49 314 13 37 50 

30-39 11 14 25 

20-29 5 16 21 

10-19 37 10 

0-9 .. 6 6 

-10to-l 134 

N 551 453 1,004 273 417 690 

Mean 139.4 133.4 136.7* 102.6 90.5 95.3* 

SJ>... 28.8 27.7 28.5 42.4 42.2 42.7 

* Coincidentally, in spite of the sizable difference in N's, the mean CMT scores for the 
total gifted and spouse groups as given in this table, and the corresponding means given in 
Table 12 for those among the total who took both forms of the test, are identical. 

One-half of the gifted subjects made a score of 141 or better; the 
median for men was 144 and for women, 138. About 2 percent of the 
gifted (16 men and 4 women) had scores in the 180-189 interval (per- 

* Unless otherwise indicated, the Concept Mastery scores referred to in the 
following discussion are Form T scores. 


feet score equals 190), and 10 subjects, a scant one per cent, scored 
below 60. The scores of the spouses ranged from minus 8* to 189 with 
half of the husbands scoring above 108 and half of the wives about 92. 
For both the subjects and their spouses the mean scores were slightly 
lower than the medians, and the standard deviations were approxi- 
mately 28 for the gifted and 43 for the spouses. The sex differences in 
mean score for the gifted and spouse groups, though comparatively 
small, are statistically significant, with critical ratios of 3.4 for the 
gifted and 3 . 6 for the spouses. The spouse group, in spite of an aver- 
age score about one standard deviation below that of the gifted sub- 
jects, are themselves a superior group as is shown in a comparison of 
the data in Tables 15, 16, and 17. 


A comparison of the Concept Mastery scores earned by the gifted 
subjects in 195CM52 with their childhood Binet IQ shows a progression 
in Concept Mastery mean scores corresponding to increase in Binet IQ 
level. Of the 1,004 gifted subjects who took the Concept Mastery, 703 
had been selected in the original survey of 1921-22 by a Stanford-Binet 
test. Table 14 gives the mean score and standard deviation on the Con- 
cept Mastery for these subjects classified according to their childhood 
Binet IQ. Despite the attenuating effects of age when first tested and 
despite the additional attenuation due to the highly curtailed distribu- 
tion of the childhood IQ's, there is nevertheless a positive correlation 
of .29 between Binet scores in childhood and Concept Mastery scores* 
30 years later. The differences in mean CMT scores at the various 
Binet IQ levels are highly significant as determined by the F ratio 



There is also a positive relationship between Concept Mastery score 
and the level of education. An increase in score with increase in amount 
of education is to be expected in a test of mental ability because of the 
corresponding increase in degree of selection on the basis of intelli- 
gence at the higher educational levels. It should be noted also that a 

* Below zero scores result from too many wrong guesses (score equals rights 
minus wrongs) and may be regarded as zero scores. 




Concept Mastery Test 
BinetlQ N Mean S.D. 

170 and above. 48 155.8 23.1 

160-169 70 146.2 26.2 

150-159 200 136.5 29.0 

140-149 344 131.8 28.6 

135-139 41 114.2 33.3 

test of the type and level of difficulty of the Concept Mastery cannot be 
entirely free from the influence of schooling. Table 15 gives the mean 
scores and standard deviations for the CMT according to the amount 
of education for both the gifted subjects and their spouses, and Table 16 
gives the corresponding data for a group of 333 Air Force captains.* 



Spouses of Gifted 
Gifted Subjects Subjects 

Educational Level N Mean S.D. N Mean S.D. 

Ph.D 51 159.0 19.3 12 148.7 27.8 

M.D 35 143.6 23.2 18 123.9 27.8 

LL.B 73 149.4 20.7 20 126.5 37.5 

Master's or equivalent degree 151 144.3 25.4 47 130.8 32.5 
Graduate study one or more 

years without degree 122 143.0 26.9 50 119.7 33.8 

Bachelor's degree only 263 135.7 26.6 192 105,0 38.0 

All college graduates 695 140.9 26.0 339 114.6 37.8 

College 1-4 years 163 128.7 29.7 164 84.6 36.9 

No college 146 118.4 28.5 187 68.6 38.0 



Educational Level N Mean S.D. 

College graduation 66 73.0 36.2 

College 1-4 years 131 60.5 32.3 

High-school graduation 121 56 . 7 26 . 8 

Less than high-school graduation ... 15 34.5 19.7 

* These men constitute Group 2 of Table 12 and Group 10 of Table 17 and are 
described on page 59. Information on schooling was lacking for 11 of the total 344 
officers tested. 


Although the educational attainments of the Air Force group are con- 
siderably lower than those of the gifted subjects and their spouses, a 
relationship is still apparent between CMT mean scores and extent of 
education. For all three groups the differences in mean scores, accord- 
ing to educational levels, are significant (P = <.001). 


In order to secure normative data, the Concept Mastery test was 
given to a number of subjects outside the gifted study. Table 17 gives 
the mean scores and standard deviations for all the various groups 
tested including the gifted and their spouses. Brief descriptions of the 
subjects in Groups 3 to 10 of Table 17 follow: 

Group 3 Graduate Students (University of California Institute of 
Personality Assessment and Research IPAR). This group was com- 
posed of 80 senior medical school students and 81 advanced graduate stu- 
dents, all of whom were within one year of completing their degrees, for 
the most part the Ph.D., in the Graduate Division, University of California. 

Group A Electronic Engineers and Scientists (Navy Electronics Lab- 
oratory). These subjects were tested in a study of creativity made at a 
Navy electronics laboratory. All were college graduates and about one- 
third had taken some graduate work, including several Ph.D/s. 

Group 5 Applicants for Ford Foundation Graduate Fellowships in 
Behavioral Sciences. This group was composed of 83 college seniors from 
34 colleges throughout the United States. 

Group 6 Undergraduate Students (Stanford University and Univer- 
sity of California) . About 41 percent were seniors and the remainder were 
juniors and sophomores. 

Group 7 Graduate Students (University of California) . The majority 
of these students took the CMT in connection with the counseling services 
at the University of California. 

Group 8 College Graduates. This was a nonstudent group. All had at 
least a bachelor's degree, and 9 of the total 75 held graduate degrees. They 
were tested at the University of California Counseling Center where they 
had sought vocational counsel. 

Group 9 Applicants for Admission to the Public Health Education Cur- 
riculum (University of California). This group of college graduates from 
various institutions was seeking admission to the Public Health Education 
curriculum, a graduate department. 

Group 10 Air Force Captains (IPAR). An evaluation study for the 
Air Force of captains who were up for promotion, included the CMT. The 
median age of these men was 33 years. The extent of education in the group 
is reported in Table 16. 




Concept Mastery, Form T 

Group N Median Mean S.D. 

1. Subjects of Gifted Study 1,004 141 137 28 

2. Spouses of Gifted Subjects 690 96 95 43 

3. Graduate Students (IPAR) 161 120 118 33 

4. Electronic Engineers and Scientists 95 92 94 37 

5. Applicants for Ford Foundation Fellowships .. 83 116 118 35 

6. Undergraduate Students 309 92 94 33 

7. Graduate Students 125 121 119 33 

8. College Graduates 75 111 112 32 

9. Applicants to Public Health Education Curricu- 

lum 54 101 97 29 

10. Air Force Captains 344 55 60 32 

A comparison of the figures in Table 17 shows that the gifted sub- 
jects, regardless of the amount of schooling, far outdistance all the 
other groups in mean score. This is true even though in general there 
is an increase in CMT score with increase in educational level. As 
shown in Table IS, the mean CMT score for the gifted subjects who 
have taken a Ph.D. degree is 159. In contrast, Group 3 of Table 17, 
which is made up of advanced graduate students at the University of 
California, had a mean score of 118. Of the 161 men in Group 3, one- 
half were in the final year of medical school and the other half with 
only a few exceptions were within one year of completing work for a 
Ph.D. Separately, the mean CMT score for the 80 medical students 
was 114 and for the 81 Ph.D. students the mean was 122. It is even 
more interesting to* find from a comparison of Table 17 with Table 15 
that the 146 gifted subjects who did not go to college at all have exactly 
the same mean CMT score, i.e., 118, as the advanced graduate students 
in Group 3 of Table 17. 

The lowest scoring among the various groups of subjects reported 
in Table 17 are the Air Force captains but this group, too, is selected 
on the basis of intellectual competence though less highly so than the 
other groups studied. In addition to their current military rank and 
the fact that all were candidates for promotion, further evidence of their 
superiority to the generality is found in their educational record. One- 
fifth of this group are college graduates and close to two-fifths attended 
college for one to three years. Considering their generally superior 
educational and vocational status, it can be assumed that the mean Con- 


cept Mastery score for these men would be considerably above that 
found for a random sampling of the general population. The differ- 
ence of 77 points between the mean score of the Air Force men and 
that of the gifted subjects, of whom only 1 percent score as low as the 
mean of the Air Force group, warrants the assumption that the gifted 
subjects would excel by an even greater margin the so-far-undetermined 
mean for the generality. 

Unfortunately, we have no direct way of measuring the degree to 
which the gifted subjects have maintained their superiority to the gen- 
eral population. We lack a random sampling for the CMT as well as 
data for comparing Form T scores with Stanford-Binet or similar 
scores, other than the data for the gifted subjects themselves. The 1939 
version of the CMT, Form A, however, was given to a group of college 
students who were also given the 1937 Stanford-Binet and the Wechs- 
ler tests. 1 By statistical inference based on a comparison of the CMT 
scores of this college sample with their standing on the Stanford-Binet 
and the Wechsler tests, it was estimated that the 1939-40 Concept 
Mastery scores of the gifted subjects were, on the average, 2.5 S.D/s 
above the mean of the general population. 


Although we are not able to determine accurately the amount of 
change, if any, in the intellectual status of the gifted subjects since their 
selection in childhood solely on the basis of ability to score within the 
top one percent of the generality on a standardized intelligence test, 
we are able to compare the status of the gifted group and of their 
spouses as well at two different testings with the Concept Mastery 
Test : Form A in 1939-40 and Form T in 1950-52. 

In order to secure equivalent scores for Forms A and T, both forms 
were given, either in immediate succession or at one-week intervals, 
to 148 subjects. Form A was given first to half of the subjects and 
Form T first to the other half. This sample was composed of 108 
Stanford undergraduates and 40 graduate students and faculty mem- 
bers at the University of California. After correction for practice ef- 
fects, the transformation by "line of equivalents" was made and a 
conversion table set up by which Form T scores could be converted 

* The data to be discussed liere are from a detailed study of the changes in 
intellectual status with age among the gifted subjects and their spouses. This study, 
made by Nancy Bayley and Melita Oden, is reported in "The Maintenance of Intel- 
lectual Ability in Gifted Adults," in the Journal of Gerontology.* 


into Form A equivalents. These equated scores will be referred to as 
T(e) scores. For this sample of 148 the correlation between the two 
forms is . 94. 

In the follow-up of 1939-40 the Concept Mastery, Form A had 
been given to 954 gifted subjects and 527 spouses of the gifted and in 
the 1950-52 follow-up Form T was given to 1,004 gifted and 690 
spouses. There were 768 gifted subjects (422 men and 346 women) 
and 335 spouses (144 husbands and 191 wives) who took both Form A 
and Form T. The elapsed time between the two testings was from 11 
to 12 years. The average age of the subjects at the earlier testing was 
29.5 years and at the later testing it was approximately 41.5 years. 
The average age of the spouses was about the same 41,2 years at 
the 1950-52 follow-up. The test-retest correlations for the 11- to 12- 
year interval are all high. For both gifted men and gifted women the 
Form A scores correlated .88 with the Form T(e) scores. In the case 
of the spouses, both husbands and wives, the correlation between A 
and T(e) scores was .92. Such difference as there is between the cor- 
relations for the gifted and the spouses can be accounted for by the 
greater variability in scores of the less highly selected spouse group. 

Table 18 gives the Form A and Form T(e) mean scores and stand- 
ard deviations separately by sex for those gifted subjects and spouses 
of the gifted who took both forms of the Concept Mastery. The data 
show that the scores of both the gifted and the spouse groups were con- 
sistently higher at the second testing when the subjects were approxi- 
mately 12 years older. The increases in score for each of the subgroups 
were highly significant statistically, the level of significance being bet- 
ter than .001 in every instance. Table 18 includes also the mean score 
and S.D. for the gifted men and women who were tested once only on 
the CMT (either Form A or Form T). A comparison of the CMT 
scores of the twice-tested subjects with the scores of those tested only 
once indicates that the twice-tested are typical of the total. The in- 
creases in mean score from Form A to Form T(e) range from 11.4 
points for the wives of gifted men to 16.3 points for the gifted men. 
The gifted women improved their score by 15.5 points and their hus- 
bands increased 14.9 points on the average. In interpreting these 
increases the reader is cautioned that a line of equivalents based on 
148 cases is bound to have some sampling errors and these estimates 
of change have to be regarded as approximations. 

Although the general trend was toward an increase in score on re- 
test, not all of the gifted showed a gain from A to T(e) scores. A few 



Form A Form T(e) ^^f" 

Twice-tested N Mean S.D. N Mean S.D. A^TCe) 

Gifted men 422 98.6 30.8 422 114.9 26.2 16.3 

Gifted women 346 94.9 28.5 346 11Q.4 25.3 15.5 

Husbands 143 65.3 34.5 143 80.2 39.0 14.9 

Wives 191 59.8 35.1 191 71.2 39.2 11.4 

Tested Once Only 

Gifted men 95* 98.2 33.8 129 117.0 30.0 18.8 

Gifted women 73* 90.0 27.6 107 105.4 26.7 15.4 

* 10 men and 8 women not included had died in the interval between 1940 and 1951. 

subjects, about 6 percent, lost more than 5 points, but except for two 
cases none of the losses was greater than 20 points. The man with the 
greatest drop (26 points) on the retest had scored within the top one 
percent for gifted men on Form A and in about the top 18 percent on 
Form T and, thus, was still well above the average of the gifted group. 
Since this man held a Ph.D. degree and was a college instructor, it 
seems reasonable to suppose that the lower score on Form T was due 
to some accidental circumstance at the time of testing rather than to a 
true change in intellectual ability. The woman with the greatest loss 
from Form A to Form T(e) had scored 20 points (nearly two-thirds 
of an S.D.) below the mean for the gifted on Form A and was more 
than 2 S.D.'s below the mean on Form T. She had one year of college 
work and a brief business course. Married and the mother of two chil- 
dren, she has been employed for many years in clerical work. She has 
few interests outside her home and job and reports that she does very- 
little reading other than the newspaper ("usually") and popular maga- 
zines. There was little evidence of cultural interests in the home, and 
the subject, though cooperative in the gifted study, says she feels that 
she does not really belong in the group. 

An investigation of the relationship between gains or losses in score 
and such factors as age, initial score, education, and occupation indi- 
cated that improvement occurs to about the same extent at all ages, at 
all levels of ability tested, and in all educational and occupational levels 
represented. The data from the retests of the gifted group and of their 
spouses (also intellectually superior on the average though less highly 
selected than the gifted) give strong evidence that intelligence of the 
type tested by the Concept Mastery test continues to increase at least 
through SO years of age. 


The educational histories of the gifted subjects were reported at length 
in the preceding volume 36 of this series, which covered the record to 
1945. Since all but a small number had completed their schooling at 
that time, the data presented here will (1) bring up to date the amount 
of schooling, (2) summarize the academic records and major fields of 
study which were reported in detail in the earlier volume, and (3) dis- 
cuss some of the reflections on their education made by subjects them- 
selves in the Supplementary Biographical Data blank of 1951-52. 


The educational record of the subjects is a remarkable one : 87 per- 
cent of the men and 83 percent of the women entered college and 70 
percent of men and 67 percent of women graduated. Of those who did 
not go to college, more than one-third of the men and one-fourth of the 
women had supplemented their high-school education with courses at 
trade, business, technical, art, or other specialized schools. On the other 
hand, approximately 8 percent of men and 12 percent of women did not 
go beyond high school and a small number of these (2 men and 9 
women) did not complete the full high-school course or its equivalent. 
However, in these latter cases, the failure to complete high school was 
chiefly a formality. The two men left high school at the end of the third 
year, one to study music and one to enter trade school. Three of the 
9 women who did not graduate from high school were child perform- 
ers on the stage or in motion pictures and discontinued their schooling 
to study dramatics or dancing. Another three took a business school 
course after three years of high school. Table 19 gives the extent of 
schooling to college graduation, by sex, for the total group of subjects. 

* Ttie figures on amount of schooling, both undergraduate and graduate, given in 
the text and in Tables 19 and 20 are for the total group of subjects for whom the 
information was available. The data are given not only for those living but also for 
the deceased subjects who had completed their education before death. The other 
comparisons In this chapter and elsewhere between amount of schooling and other 
variables are limited to subjects living at the time the particular data under discussion 
were collected. 



There has been a slight increase in the number of both bachelor's and 
graduate degrees in the 10-year period between 1945 and 1955, ac- 
counted for chiefly by the completion of their studies by those who were 
students at the earlier date. There were, however, a few instances in 
which a subject who had dropped out of college returned later to take 
a degree. The proportion of both sexes with no formal schooling beyond 
high school has remained about the same since 1940, although a few 
individuals in this category have continued their studies. Of particular 
interest is the case of one man who got his high-school diploma at the 
age of 45. He had left high school in 1931 while in his second year be- 
cause of lack of interest and financial need. He eventually worked into 
a very good civil-service position for which he was able to qualify on 
promotional examinations even though he lacked the requisite high- 
school diploma. In 1955 he was awarded a high-school diploma, earned 
through attendance at evening classes in the adult education program, 
and he is now planning university extension courses to qualify himself 
for a position in a more technical or scientific field. 

The record of nearly 70 percent college graduation in our group is 
especially outstanding when we consider that this was achieved chiefly 
in the decade 1930-40 when less than 8 percent of the generality of 
comparable age were graduating from college. Even in these later years 
when the number of college graduates has increased so markedly, the 
record set by the gifted subjects is far above the 12 percent of the pres- 
ent-day youth who complete college. 43 Especially noteworthy is the 
number of gifted women who are college graduates. As shown in 
Table 19, the proportion of women graduates is almost as great as the 
proportion of men graduates, namely, 67 percent of women as com- 
pared with 70 percent of men. Among the generality of college gradu- 
ates, according to Wolfle's estimate (1953), the sex ratio is 60 men to 
40 women. 

The educational record of the gifted subjects is even more impres- 
sive when we consider the number who have continued for graduate 
study. Table 20 shows the extent of graduate training completed and 
the degrees taken. Two-thirds of the men and almost three-fifths of the 
women who completed college entered graduate school, and 56 percent 
of the men and 33 percent of the women took one or more advanced 
degrees. It should be noted that more have taken master's and pro- 
fessional degrees than show in Table 20, since each person appears 
only at his highest degree. The highest degree was most often the 



Men Women 

N % N % 

College graduation 579 70.0 429 66.7 

From 1 to 4 years of college (no degree) ... 139 16.8 105 16.3 

High school plus special training 38 4.6 28 4.4 

High school graduation 69 8.4 72 11.2 

High school not completed 2 0.2 9 1.4 

Total 827 643 

Deceased and education not completed at 

time of death 19 11 

Subjects "lost" and information lacking 11 17 

Total number of subjects in study .... 857 671 

LL.B. 3 taken by 90 men; next in order of frequency was the master's 
(87), followed by the Ph.D. (80). The M.D. degree was taken by 49 
men, and other professional degrees or diplomas by 17 men. In the case 
of women the master's degree held by 90 is the most frequent graduate 
degree. A Ph.D. degree has been taken by 17 women, the M.D. by six, 
and the LLJB. by two. Other graduate degrees or diplomas are held by 
28 women. Slightly more than one-tenth of the men and one-fourth of 
the women who entered graduate school did not take a graduate degree. 
In some cases the advanced study was begun with the idea of getting a 
master's or Ph.D. degree but the students were deterred from comple- 
tion by such circumstances as change of interests, lack of finances or, 
more fortuitously, an attractive job opening. Often, especially among 
the women, the graduate work was taken to qualify for a professional 
credential, usually in teaching, rather than for a degree. 

Interesting comparative data on graduate study and graduate de- 
grees for the college population in general are furnished by Wolfle 43 
who reports a steady increase since 1900 in the number of United States 
college graduates who enter graduate school. By 1953, approximately 
one-fourth of those who received bachelor's degrees proceeded to gradu- 
ate study. Of these, about 17 percent took a master's degree and about 
two percent a Ph.D. or comparable doctorate. On the other hand, in 
the gifted group, nearly all of whom had completed their undergraduate 
study by 1940, two-thirds of men and about three-fifths of women with 
a bachelor's degree entered graduate school and, as the 1955 record 




Men Women 

"N %~" N % 

Ph.D. or other doctorate 80 13.8 17 4.0 

M.D., M.Sc.D 49 8.5 6 1.4 

LL.B., LL.M 90 15.5 2 .5 

Master's plus 1 or more years of study 26 4.5 20 4.7 

Master's degree 61 10.5 70 16.3 

Other graduate degrees or diplomas 17 2.9 28 6.5 

Graduate study for one or more years and no 

degreetaken 63 10.9 107 24.9 

One or more years of graduate work 386 66.7 250 58.3 

Bachelor's degree only 193 33.3 179 41.7 

Total college graduates 579 429 

shows, 56 percent of the men and 33 percent of the women have 
taken one or more graduate degrees. The most striking contrast is 
seen in the number of doctorates : 14 percent of gifted men and 4 per- 
cent of gifted women (10% for the sexes combined) as compared with 
the current 2 percent of the generality of college graduates (men and 
women) who get a doctor's degree. 

Nor did education end for the gifted when they left school. No 
mention has been made in either Table 19 or Table 20 of the large num- 
ber who have participated in adult education or workshop programs 
or who are otherwise engaged in special study on a noncredit basis. In 
addition, postgraduate certificates, licenses, and diplomas have been 
received by a number of subjects who qualified by examination for such 
special designations as Fellow, American Board of Surgery; Diploma, 
American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology; Fellow, 
American Institute of Architects; Certified Public Accountant; and 
similar certifications. Also special study in arts, crafts, foreign lan- 
guages, literature, etc., are frequently mentioned among the avocational 
interests of our subjects. 


In general, the academic record for the college graduates was supe- 
rior, with 78 percent of men and 83 percent of women having an average 
grade of B or better in college. One or more honors (graduation cum 
laude, Phi Beta Kappa, or Sigma Xi) were won by 40 percent of men 


and 33 percent of women graduates. On the other hand, 53 men and 
10 women flunked out of college. Of these, 24 men re-entered and 
graduated and IS continued for advanced degrees, including 4 Ph.D.'s, 
3 law degrees, 2 medical degrees, and 1 engineering degree. Only one 
woman of the 10 who failed later completed college, and she graduated 
cum laude. No clear pattern of causes for college failure emerges ; how- 
ever, the most common explanation given by the subjects was that in 
high school they had found it so easy to make high marks that they 
underestimated the amount of study necessary in college. A few felt 
that they had missed the fun and social life of high school, and on enter- 
ing college devoted too much time to extracurricular student body or 
social activities. There were also a good many instances in which the 
poor record could be attributed to lack of proper guidance in the selec- 
tion of a major field. 

For men the five leading major fields were as follows in order of 
frequency: Social Sciences, 42 percent; Physical Sciences, 17 percent; 
Engineering, IS percent; Biological Sciences, 10 percent; and Letters, 
9 percent. In the case of women, although the Social Sciences led with 
37 percent, it was by a slim margin. Letters was in second place with 
36 percent. Next in order for the women were Education, 9 percent ; 
Biological Sciences, 6 percent ; and Physical Sciences, 5 percent. No 
more than 2 percent of either sex majored in any of the other fields of 
study reported. 

The most frequent major among men who took graduate work was 
Law, with 25 percent of the total. Physical Sciences (13%) and Engi- 
neering (8%) combined were in second place with 21 percent. Next 
in order of choice were Social Sciences, 18 percent, followed by Bio- 
logical Sciences, with 17 percent. Education and Letters each claimed 
6 percent. There were no more than 3 percent in any other graduate 
major field. For women graduate students the five leading major fields 
were the same as in the undergraduate years but the order changed. 
The graduate majors and the percentage in each are as follows : Social 
Sciences, 32 percent ; Letters, 28 percent ; Education, 19 percent ; Bio- 
logical Sciences, 9 percent ; and Physical Sciences, 5 percent. 


The Supplementary Biographical Data blanks which the gifted men 
and women filled out in 195152 offer some interesting sidelights on 
the educational history of our group. In reviewing their education at 


mid-life, the great majority reported themselves as satisfied with their 
schooling. When asked to identify in a list of 10 the factors that had 
contributed to their life accomplishment, adequate education was the. 
factor most frequently checked by both sexes (83% of men and 79% 
of women). In reply to the question : "Did you have as much schooling 
as you wanted ? If not, explain" 71 percent of men and 62 percent of 
women gave an unqualified "Yes" and an additional 6 percent of men 
and 10 percent of women replied with a qualified "Yes" such as "Yes, 
at the time, but not now," or "Yes, but the wrong kind." A small num- 
ber (1.8% of men and 0.6% of women) stated only that their school- 
ing was of the "wrong kind." The inability to finance further school- 
ing was the most frequent explanation of a "No" response (13% of 
men and 16% of women). Some 7 percent of both men and women cut 
short their schooling because of the war, marriage, lack of interest, or 
lack of encouragement. Finally, reasons of health were given by a small 
minority (2.3% of men and 3.5% of women). 

When we compare the replies to this question with the actual amount 
of schooling, we find, as would be expected, that the great majority of 
college graduates (84% of men and 88% of women) had as much edu- 
cation as they wanted. Some interesting sex differences appear among 
those who did not attend college at all. Almost half of the men who did 
not enter college felt that they had had as much education as they 
wanted, while only 32 percent of women with no college attendance 
were satisfied with their education. Table 21 gives the distribution of 
replies for three levels of education. 



One to 

College 4 Years No 

Graduate College College 

(N = 325) (N = 77) (N = 78) 

80.6 29.9 16.6 

7.1 19.5 15.4 

0.6 .... 1.3 

5.5 33.8 44.9 

1.5 1.3 11.5 

4.7 15.6 10.3 


One to 

College 4 Years 
Did you have as much Graduate College 
schooling as you (N = 456) (N = 80) 
wanted? % % 

Yes (unqualified) ... 80.7 45.0 
Yes (qualified) 3.7 5.0 
Wrong kind 1.8 3.8 

(N = 64) 


No, lack of finances. . 6.6 26.2 
No, lack of encourage- 
ment or motivation 2.2 5.0 
No, miscellaneous 
reasons 5.0 15.0 



According to the retrospective opinions of the subjects in the bio- 
graphical data blank, the attitudes of their parents had been favorable 
to educational achievement. The subjects were asked to report on their 
parents' attitude toward (a) school progress, (6) school work, (c) col- 
lege attendance. Their replies are given in Table 22. In only a few cases 
did the parents fail to give encouragement or to show interest in the 
school work of these children. That the parents of 88 percent of men 
and 85 percent of women should have encouraged college attendance 
for their sons and daughters in the 1920's and 1930's, when so small 
a proportion of their classmates were continuing beyond high school, is 
truly remarkable. The fact that more than twice as large a proportion 
of women as of men say that they were not encouraged to go to college 
because of financial difficulties can be explained on the ground that girls 
could not be expected to find ways to earn their expenses as readily as 
boys, and because of the parental view that money for a college educa- 
tion was not as well spent for girls as for boys. On the other hand, more 
than three times as many men as women said that their parents were 
indifferent, or left the decision to the subject, or that college attendance 
was not considered in the family. More than half of the men who re- 
ported this passive attitude on the part of their parents, however, did 



Men Women 

Attitude of Parents (N ^ 601) (N 1 483) 
(a) Toward school progress 

1. Encouraged to forge ahead 51 .0 46.2 

2. Allowed to go own pace 47.7 52.4 

3. Heldback 1.3 1.4 

(6) Toward school work 

1. Demanded high marks 12.1 13.8 

2. Encouraged or expected high marks 84.6 81 .7 

3. Little concern or Interest 3.3 4.5 

(c) Toward college attendance 

1. Encouraged college 87.7 85.3 

2. Indifferent ; decision left to subject 3.7 1.0 

3. College not encouraged because of subject's 
youth, health, considered waste of money, 

etc 1.2 1.7 

4. College not encouraged because of limited 

finances 4.3 9.7 

5. College not encouraged subject did not ex- 
plain 3.2 2.3 


graduate from college, and almost one-fourth continued for graduate 

As one might expect, the great majority of those who say that they 
were encouraged to go to college by their parents did so : 84 percent 
of the men and 78 percent of the women in this category took a bache- 
lor's degree, and 56 percent of the men and 44 percent of the women 
continued for graduate work. Among the subjects whose parents did 
not encourage college, we find that 10 percent of men and 14 percent 
of women were graduated. Table 23 gives the amount of education 
according to the parents' attitude toward college attendance. 



Encouraged Indifferent Not Encouraged 

Men Women Men Women Men Women 
(N = 527) (N = 412) (N = 22) (N = 5) (N = 52) (N = 66) 
% % % % % 

College graduation 83.5 77.6 50.0 (3 cases) 9.6 13.6 

College 1 to 4 years 11.6 15.6 27.3 23.1 18.2 

No College 4.9 6.8 22.7 (2 cases) 67.3 68.2 

It must be remembered that the feelings and opinions expressed in 
the biographical data blanks are memory reports. There is no way of 
knowing the part that rationalization may have played or the extent to 
which these opinions may have been colored by later experiences. 

Another favorable circumstance that no doubt contributed to the 
high rate of college attendance in our group was the superior educa- 
tional attainments of the parents themselves. Approximately 35 per- 
cent of fathers and 16 percent of the mothers held a bachelor's degree 
or better, while 11 percent of fathers and 15 percent of mothers had 
attended college for from one to three years, often receiving a certifi- 
cate or professional degree. Since 88 percent of our subjects were born 
before 1915 and 38 percent before 1910, the schooling of the majority 
of the parents took place in the 1890's and early 1900's. In contrast, 
Wolfle reports that in 1900 in the country as a whole only 1 . 7 per- 
cent of persons of college age graduated from college. 


From the foregoing it is evident that the educational attainments 
of the gifted subjects are not only far above those of their contempo- 


raries but also well ahead of the present-day rates in terms of college 
degrees, both undergraduate and graduate. But, good as these educa- 
tional records were, they could have been better. The figures given are 
more significant when they are read in reverse. All of these subjects 
were potentially superior college material yet more than 10 percent of 
the men and more than 15 percent of the women did not enter college, 
and 30 percent of the group did not graduate. Inability to finance col- 
lege and lack of parental encouragement were frequent causes of fail- 
ure to attend college, but more often the real cause was the failure of 
the high school to recognize the gifted students' potentialities and to 
give the needed encouragement and stimulation. 37 This research has 
not yielded a great deal of information on methods and techniques for 
the education of the gifted since the investigation was not undertaken 
as a study in the pedagogy of gifted children, but rather as a search for 
the basic facts necessary to a full understanding of the gifted individual 
and his potentialities. Not until the physical and mental characteristics 
and the developmental tendencies of intellectually superior children 
have been definitely established is it possible to plan intelligently for 
their education. Only a very few of the children in this group had en- 
joyed any special educational opportunities in the elementary or sec- 
ondary schools beyond the opportunity to skip an occasional grade. As 
a result of this skipping the group as a whole was somewhat acceler- 
ated, with about one-half of the boys and three-fifths of the girls gradu- 
ating from high school before the age of 17. In fact, nearly one-fourth 
of the group completed high school by age sixteen and one-half years. 
A careful study of acceleration in the group was made in a search for 
factors that might be associated with rate of school progress. Specifi- 
cally, the accelerated (defined as high-school graduation before age 
sixteen and one-half) were compared with the nonaccelerates on a num- 
ber of variables both in childhood and in later life. These results were 
discussed in full in Volume IV of this series. 36 In general, the findings 
favored the rapidly promoted children. It was concluded that children 
of IQ 135 or higher should be promoted sufficiently to permit college 
entrance by the age of seventeen at latest, and that a majority in this 
group would be better off to enter at sixteen. Acceleration to this ex- 
tent is especially desirable for those who plan to complete two or more 
years of graduate study in preparation for a professional career. 


The extent to which the gifted subjects in their adult careers have ful- 
filled the promise of their superior intellectual endowments and educa- 
tional attainments is one of the most significant aspects of this study. 
Now, at mid-life, at an average age of 44, the subjects can be considered, 
to be pretty well established in their life work. While promotions and 
advances in both position and income may be expected for some years, 
there is not likely to be much change in field of work. This is true at 
least for the men. The occupational future of the women is less pre- 
dictable. Some women now employed may decide that they would 
prefer more home and family life while some housewives may decide 
on taking jobs as their children grow older. Because the career patterns 
and the types of occupations of men and women in the gifted group are 
so different, as are those of men and women in general, their vocational 
careers will be discussed separately. 


The occupations of the employed men were classified according to the 
Minnesota Occupational Scale, 16 the same scale as that used in classify- 
ing the occupations of the gifted men in 1940 and 1950. This scale con- 
tains a list of about 350 occupations which are grouped into seven cate- 
gories ranging from the professions to unskilled labor. We are con- 
cerned here with Groups I to V only since no gifted men fall in either 
Group VI (slightly skilled) or Group VII (unskilled). Group I is 
limited to the professions, strictly defined to include only vocations call- 
ing for a high degree of specialized knowledge, training, or creativity. 
Group IV includes all agricultural and related occupations regardless 
of the scale of operations. The remaining three occupation groups 
II, III, and V cover occupations related to business, finance, and in- 
dustry as well as the arts and entertainment, and the semiprofessional, 
protective service, and other nonprofessional and nonf arming occupa- 



Group II is made up of the managerial ranks in business and indus- 
try, the officials in public or private administration, and the semipro- 
fessional occupations. Also in Group II are the men classified as "busi- 
ness professional." These are men trained in the professions such as 
engineers, statisticians, accountants, and the like, who are working in 
the field of business or industry. Group III includes the owners and 
managers of smaller businesses, clerical and sales workers, skilled work- 
ers, both craftsmen and foremen, as well as certain service workers. 
From Group III we move downward to Group V which comprises the 
minor clerical or minor business occupations and the semiskilled trades. 
Table 24 gives the occupational status of the men as reported in 1955. 


A. Classification according to Minnesota Occupational Scale 

N % of Classi- 

Group I Professional 


45 6 

Group II Managerial, official, and semiprofessional 
Group III Retail business, clerical, skilled trades, and 
kindred ...... 


10 9 

Group IV Agriculture and related occupations 


1 6 

Group V Semiskilled occupations 


1 2 

All Groups * . 



Not employed, or less than full-time employment 
1. Incapacitated by reasons of health 


% o Total 
1 1 

2. Independent means, or retired 


1 1 

3. Temporarily not employed 




1955 occupation not ascertained 
(includes 11 men lost since 1928 or earlier) 


2 3 



More than 86 percent of the employed men are in the professions 
of Group I and the higher business and semiprofessional occupations 
of Group II, and only 11 percent are in Group III. Groups IV and V 
are very much in the minority with 1.6 and 1 .2 percent, respectively. 
Table 25 gives the breakdown of the occupational groups and indicates 
the percentage of employed men in each subgroup. 

- The most frequent profession is law, with 10 percent of all gifted 
men either practicing law or in judicial positions. An additional 9 men 
with the LL.B. degree were admitted to law practice but have since 


gone into other occupations. Next most frequent among the professions 
are members of university faculties and these are closely followed by 
engineers. Although the proportion of practicing physicians in Table 25 
is 5 percent, it should be noted that an additional 6 men with the M.D. 
degree are full-time members of university faculties and are classified 
in that category. The number of clergymen also is not fully repre- 
sented in the 0.9 percent reported in Table 25 since two former minis- 
ters have joined college faculties, one at a theological college and one at 
a secular university. Although these men may occasionally serve as 
ministers they are primarily teachers. The 1 1 men in the "other profes- 
sions" include three clinical psychologists, two dentists, two landscape 
architects, two foresters, one biologist, and one librarian. 

The largest among the subgroups by a slight margin (1 man) are the 
executives in business and industry of Group II, with 79 men as com- 
pared to the 78 practicing lawyers in Group I. The addition of the bank- 
ing, finance, and insurance executives brings the business executive 
representation to better than 16 percent of the employed. These two 
leading Group II occupations are composed of men having executive 
and administrative responsibilities in broad areas of management and 
on policy-making levels. With the exception of the two higher business 
occupations and the top four professions, no other subgroup includes 
as many as 5 percent of the employed. As shown in the list of occupa- 
tions in Table 25, the vocational interests of the gifted men have led 
them into many fields and many kinds of work. 


N % 

I. Professional occupations 

1. Lawyers (include judges) 78 10.3 

2. Members of college or university faculties 57 7.5 

3. Engineers 55 7.3 

4. Physicians (practicing) 40 5.3 

5. School administrator or teacher 

(high school or junior college) 32 4.2 

6. Chemists and physicists 27 3.6 

7. Authors or journalists 17 2.3 

8. Architects 8 1.1 

9. Geologists and kindred 7 .9 

10. Clergymen 7 .9 

11. Economists 6 .8 

12. Other professions 11 1.5 


TABLE 25 (Continued) 

N % 

II. Managerial, official and semiprofessional 

1. Higher business 

Executives and managers in business and in industry 79 10.4 

Executives in banking, finance, and insurance 44 5.8 

Accounting, statistics, market research, et cetera 35 4.6 

Sales (sales managers, technical, or engineering sales) 24 3.2 

Advertising, publicity, public relations 19 2.5 

Personnel, labor relations, vocational placement, and 

kindred 10 1.3 

Building and construction (owners or officials) 9 1.2 

Office manager, department head, et cetera 12 1.5 

2. Arts and entertainment 

Radio, television, or motion pictures: producer, di- 
rector, writer 21 2.8 

Musician or actor 6 .8 

Applied arts (illustrator, commercial art, decorator, 

and kindred) 6 .8 

3. Semiprofessions 

Draftsman, surveyor, and kindred 9 1.2 

Nonacademic teaching (trade school, technical, avo- 

cational, et cetera) 4 .5 

Other 3 .4 

4. Army and Navy officers 15 2.0 

5. Officials in administration (public or private) 

Includes government officials 12 1.6 

III. Retail business (small), clerical and sales, skilled crafts, 

protective services (supervisory ranks) and kindred 

1. Clerical and sales 29 3.8 

2. Skilled crafts (craftsmen and foremen) 29 3.8 

3. Retail business (small) owners and managers. 10 1.3 

4. Technicians (laboratory assistants, dental technicians, 

etcetera 5 .7 

5. Protective service occupations* 10 1.3 

IV. Agriculture and related occupations 

1. Farm owners and operators 11 1.5 

2. Nurseryman 1 .1 

V. Minor business and semiskilled occupations 

1. Clerical and business 7 .9 

2. Semiskilled trades 2 .3 

Total 757 

* Includes 1 Inspector and 1 Captain of Police; 3 Police Sergeants; 1 Sheriff; 2 Battalion 
CMefs (fire department) ; 1 CMef Warrant Officer, U.S. Army; and 1 Master Sergeant, U.S. 


The following case notes will illustrate some of the occupations that 
are classified in the various groups. The descriptions do not cover all 
occupations represented in these groups but we have attempted to show 
something of the variety in both the nature and the level of occupation. 

Group I 

(1) A director of engine research for one of the largest companies 
manufacturing heavy equipment. His story is especially interesting be- 
cause he arrived at his present high-level engineering job without the usual 
training. He graduated from high school with honors at age 17 and imme- 
diately went to work as an office boy for the firm with which he is still asso- 
ciated. He was made an apprentice mechanic within a few months and 
thereafter rose rapidly through the various engineering levels to his present 

(2) A newspaper reporter and columnist who has also written a num- 
ber of books on sports for children, 

(3) A physician and specialist in cancer research who heads the depart- 
ment of internal medicine in a leading university. 

(4) A pastor of a church in a medium-sized city who has taken a doc- 
torate in theology. He is engaged in pastoral work and heads the district 
council of churches. 

(5) A man with a B.S. in physics who is employed as a physicist in the 
research and development division of a large oil company. 

(6) A university professor of astronomy engaged in teaching and re- 
search. Under various grants, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, he has 
carried out research projects in Africa as well as at several observatories 
in this country and has published a number of research papers. 

(7) Two writers of interest because of different backgrounds and 
parallel careers* One trained in engineering (B.S. and M.S.) is one of the 
country's leading science fiction and fantasy writers who has produced some 
60 short stories and novelettes as well as 15 volumes of fiction and non- 
fiction. He is also the author of a number of magazine articles, critiques 
and book reviews dealing chiefly with science or science fiction. 

The other, with a background in the liberal arts (A.B. and M.A.), is 
both prolific and versatile. By age 40 he had produced 7 mystery novels, 
25 or more short stories, and 10 or 12 articles. A reviewer of note, he writes 
a regular column of book reviews for a nationally circulated metropolitan 
newspaper. He has won the Edgar Allen Poe award four times for the best 
mystery story reviewing in the United States. He is the editor of three 
magazines of mystery or science fiction and has also published five an- 
thologies of mystery stories. In addition, he has taught a class in creative 
writing for the past seven years. 

(8) A former high-school teacher who is now supervisor of measure- 
ment and evaluation in a large city school department. 


(9) A member of the editorial staff of a leading journal who was for- 
merly a professor of fine arts and more recently associate director of an 
Institute of Fine Arts. 

Group II 

(1) A man who took a Ph.D. in physics with high scholastic honors 
and then found himself more interested in economic theory and political 
science. After several years experience in statistical economics with private 
firms, he was in government service during World War II in charge of 
industrial control programs. After the war he joined a world-wide ship- 
ping company where he has now become controller and vice-president. 

(2) A motion picture director who has made some of the most outstand- 
ing pictures of the past ten years. His pictures made in England and on 
the Continent as well as those made in the United States have won him an 
international reputation. He has received a number of citations and awards 
including a special award at the International Film Festival. Other honors 
include several "Oscar" awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts 
and Sciences won either by his pictures or by actors under his direction. 

(3) A graduate in chemistry (B.S.) who joined the sales division of 
a large chemical company. After several years in the field of technical 
sales work, he received a year of additional training in economics from 
the company and is now in charge of a sales division. 

(4) A graduate in engineering (A.B. and M.E.) who went into the con- 
struction business. He has been highly successful in the field of residential 
property development. 

(5) A former high-school teacher of mathematics and science who is 
now a land surveyor. 

(6) A city manager of a small California city. This man majored in 
political science and did graduate work in personnel administration. He 
formerly worked in the field of merchandising. 

(7) A public relations official with one of the branches of the state 
government who is a writer by avocation and whose first novel was a recent 
Book-of-the-Month selection. 

(8) The director of the textbook division for a large publishing firm. 

(9) The chief of police of a small city. He has developed a co-ordinated 
communications system, which is considered a model. A special interest in 
the prevention of juvenile delinquency has brought him frequent invitations 
to lecture on this and other aspects of his work. 

Group III 

(1) A university graduate and former botanist who operates a small, 
independent pest-control business. 

(2) An art-school graduate who paints m both water colors and oils 
and whose work has received considerable praise in exhibits, is employed 


as a house painter and decorator while hoping some day to win recognition 
as an artist 

(3) A man with a B.S. in chemistry who is a photographic technician. 

(4) A high -school graduate who is a supervising clerk in a public utili- 
ties office. 

(5) A high-school graduate who is a pattern-maker and instructor of 

(6) A high-school graduate who is a battalion chief in a large city fire 

(7) A noncommissioned officer in military service who is also a short 
story writer specializing in science fiction. Eight of his stories have been 
published to date. 

Group IV 

The 12 men in this category with the exception of one employed as a 
nurseryman are all owners or operators of farms or randies. Six are 
orchardists, three are cattle ranchers, one is a poultry farmer, and one a 
rice- and grain-grower. Eight of these men are college graduates, two 
attended college for two years, and two are high-school graduates. 

Group V 

(1) A university graduate who also had two years of graduate work, 
who is now a mail carrier. Because of poor health this man is not able to 
work at his profession. 

(2) Two high-school graduates, both of whom are bartenders and man- 

(3) Two men with college educations who are in minor clerical work. 
In both cases lack of stability and excessive drinking have prevented greater 
vocational achievement. 

(4) Two men who did not complete high school, one of whom is a truck 
driver and one a warehouseman. 

(5) A high-school graduate who operates a small sandwich shop. 

(6) The ninth man in Group V is described on page 82. 


There is no question but that the gifted men have many times the 
representation in the professional and higher business occupations than 
would be found for a random group of men of like age. That this group 
also surpasses in occupational status unselected college graduates is 
shown by a comparison with the data furnished by Havemann and 


West. 17 The authors have grouped "professionals of all types" into a 
single category, which presumably includes semiprofessionals and busi- 
ness professionals as well as the more strictly defined professions of the 
Minnesota Scale. Since this is too broad a grouping to be comparable 
to the Group I in which professional gifted men are classified, we have 
combined the two Havemann and West categories, "professionals of 
all types" and "proprietors, managers, and executives," for comparison 
with the combined Groups I and II of the gifted men as classified on 
the Minnesota Scale. Table 26 gives the percentage distribution of occu- 
pations for three groups of men: the U.S. college graduates in general, 
the gifted college graduates and, in addition, all gifted men regardless 
of education. 



All U.S. Gifted All 

College College Gifted 

Graduates Graduates Men 

Occupational Classification % % % 

A. Professionals of all types ; proprietors, 

managers, executives 84 93.7 86.3 

B. Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 10 4.3 10.9 

C. Skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers 5 0.5 1.2 

D. Farmers and farm workers 1 1.5 1.6 

A comparison of the figures in Table 26 shows the superiority in 
job status of the gifted graduate to college men in general. This is evi- 
dent in the higher proportion of the gifted in the important and high- 
level occupations (94% of gifted versus 84% of all college men) and in 
the very much smaller proportion of gifted graduates among both the 
clerical and sales workers and the skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled 
group. Not only do the college graduates among the gifted surpass the 
generality of college graduates in occupational status, but the total group 
of gifted men, including the 30 percent who did not graduate from col- 
lege, also compare favorably with Havemann and West's college gradu- 
ate population. As shown in the third column of Table 26, the gifted 
men, regardless of education, have a slightly larger representation in the 
higher occupations of category A and a markedly smaller proportion of 
workers at the "skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled" level of category C 
where 5 percent of unselected college graduates fall as compared with 


one-half of one percent of gifted college men and 1 . 2 percent of all 
gifted men. The proportion in farm occupations shows little difference 
in the three groups of men. 

BETWEEN 1940 AND 1955 

A comparison of the occupational status of the gifted men at differ- 
ent stages illustrates their upward progress. The fact that the Min- 
nesota Occupational Scale was used in classifying the occupations of 
1940, 1950, and 1955 makes it possible to compare the status of the men 
at these three dates.* These comparisons are given in Table 27. 


OF 1940, 1950, AND 1955 (MEN) 

Percent of Employed Menf 

1940 1950 1955 

Occupational Group (N = 724) (N = 762) (N = 757) 

I. Professional 45.4 45.6 45.6 

II. Managerial, official and semiprofesslonal 25.7 39.4 40.7 

III. Retail business, clerical, skilled crafts 

and kindred 2Q.7 12.0 10.9 

IV. Agriculture and related occupations .... 1.2 1.8 1.6 
V. Semiskilled occupations 6.2 1.2 1 .2 

VI. Slightly skilled trades 0.7 

t The slight variations in the number employed at each period are caused, in part, by the 
student status of some subjects at the earlier dates; In part, by deaths during the 15 -year span; 
and in a very few instances by incapacitation due to poor health, at one time or another. 

Omitting Group IV (farming and related occupations), the rank 
order of Groups I, II, III, and V in Table 27 remains unchanged 
throughout the 15-year period. There are, however, marked changes 
in the proportionate representation in all groups except the professions 
with most of the change taking place between 1940 and 1950. Although 
the proportion in Group I is about 45 percent at all three dates, there 
have been some shifts into and out of the professions, which are not 
apparent in the percentages. The majority of those who were graduate 
students in 1940 subsequently entered the professions, and a few men 
formerly in other occupational classifications took additional training 
following World War II to qualify for one of the professions. On the 

* The classification made of the 1944 occupations as given in the 1945 Informa- 
tion Blank is omitted from these comparisons because of the occupational dislocations 
caused by the war. 


other hand, about an equal number of men who were in Group I in 1940 
have left the active practice of their profession. All but a few of these 
men have become staff or operational executives in business or industry. 
They are classified according to the current occupation, chiefly Group 
II, although their work may be related to the former profession and 
require an application of their professional training. There are, how- 
ever, five men who were in professional work in 1940 who are cur- 
rently in Group III. These include an artist and writer who has turned 
to carpentry to earn a livelihood ; two school teachers, one of whom, 
because of special skill with tools, became a machinist, and one who is 
manager of a small business; an engineer who operates a small radio 
and television repair service ; and a lawyer who, for health reasons, is 
doing clerical work. 

In the 15-year interval from 1940 to 1955, the Group II representa- 
tion increased from 26 percent to 41 percent ; Group III dropped from 
21 percent to 11 percent; Group V decreased from about 6 percent to 
approximately 1 percent, and Group VI disappeared entirely. Only 
nine men are currently in Group V and the number in this category is 
not likely to be reduced greatly since, in all probability, there will 
always be a few individuals who, for personal reasons, choose more 
simple and routine work. In spite of the marked increase in Group II 
between 1940 and 1955, four men formerly in Group II have moved to 
a lower classification. Three of these are now in Group III, all in 
smaller retail business enterprises. The fourth man shifted to Group V 
and his story is especially interesting. 

A university graduate, D. H. for some 15 years worked for a large 
corporation in which he rose to a managerial position. His growing 
interest in the labor movement and in bettering the social order made 
the atmosphere of "big business" in which he worked increasingly un- 
congenial. Finally, after World War II he left his position to go to 
work as a laborer and has continued in this work for the past 10 years. 
He is very much interested in history, economics, and politics espe- 
cially as applied to the labor union and the working man, and reads 
extensively in these areas. D H. takes an active part in union affairs 
and appears to have found great personal satisfaction in what he is doing. 
His score on the Terman Group Test at age 15 was equivalent to an 
IQ of approximately 150 and this high intellectual level has been main- 
tained. On the Concept Mastery tests taken in 1940 and 1952 he scored 
at both dates well above the average of the gifted men. 


It is interesting to see what happened to the men who in 1940 were 
classified in Groups III, V, and VI and this information is given in 
Table 28. Of the total 200 men in these three occupational groups in 
1940, 10 had died by 1955, and information on 1955 occupation was 
not obtained for 4 men. There were no drops in the occupational level, 
among the remainder of the men in the 15-year period ; instead, for all 
but a minority there was marked improvement. Almost four-fifths of 
the men classified in either Groups III, V, or VI in 1940 moved upward 
and one-fifth remained in the same classification between 1940 and 
1955. About two-thirds of those in Group III at the earlier date had 
advanced to the higher business and professional occupations (Groups 
I and II) and one-third of the 1940 Group V men were classified in 
Groups I and II in 1955. 



1940 Occupational Classification 

1955 Occupational Status Group III Group V Group VI 

N N N 

Group I 14 5 

Group II 84 10 1 

Group III 37 26 2 

Group V 1 2 

Not employed; independent means. 1 

Incapacitated by reasons of health 3 

Information on status lacking 4 

Deceased 7 3 

Total in group as of 1940 150 45 5 

It is not surprising, of course, that the gifted men who have had the 
advantage of college training, often at the graduate level, should be in 
positions of importance and prestige in the professions and the business 
world. It is, however, of special interest when those without such edu- 
cational advantages rise to positions of importance in competition with 
college-trained men. One such example follows. 

C. J., whose formal schooling was limited to high school and 6 units 
of college mathematics taken in extension courses, moved from Group 
III to Group I between 1940 and 1955. He was one of a family of two 
children (brother and sister), both of whom were selected for the gifted 
study. For various reasons the boy, although he had had a strong in- 


terest in science and engineering since childhood, did not go to college. 
The fact that he completed high school at a time of economic stress (the 
early 1930's) may have been one determining factor behind his failure 
to enter college. His parents, although they had hoped he would con- 
tinue his education, were not able to help him financially. More impor- 
tant, however, were his poor school grades, which made it necessary 
that he take "make-up" courses to qualify for college, and at that time 
he could see no reason for spending time on subjects in which he was 
not interested. Probably the most crucial factor in his dropping out 
of school was the failure of the school itself to recognize his unusual 
ability or to offer any real guidance during his high-school years. His 
reluctance to conform to a school routine and his lack of application to 
his studies even though, according to the report from the high school, 
he showed "occasional flashes of brilliance" apparently obscured his 
great gifts. Left entirely on his own with little sympathetic stimula- 
tion and no guidance, he went to work on leaving high school, with the 
Intention of saving money for college study and a degree in engineering. 
It was an unfavorable time for financial progress, but C. J. remained 
employed all through the depression. He began at a fairly unskilled 
level but after a few years found work in the field of machine design 
where he made excellent progress. During this period he studied in- 
formally and still clung to his ambition of taking an engineering degree 
and as he came to hope a graduate degree in physics. When his 
income became sufficiently secure that he might have gone to college, 
war threatened and he turned instead to war work. During World 
War II he was on the research staff of a highly secret and important 
laboratory, working side by side with graduate physicists, often on his 
own projects, an honor usually accorded only Ph.D/s. When this re- 
search laboratory was discontinued at the end of the war, he was ap- 
pointed to the engineering staff at a military ordnance laboratory. 
Because of his fine work as a project engineer on important military 
developments, he received a promotional appointment to the GS-12 
level under a "meritorious exception." This was a distinct honor since, 
under Civil Service regulations, an individual without a college degree 
is ineligible for advancement beyond the grade of GS-7. 

However, greater honors were in store for C. J. He was recently 
fully qualified as a mechanical engineer, GS-12, thus removing the 
"meritorious exception" qualification. This action made further pro- 


motion possible and he now heads a branch of the optical engineering 
division in a military research and development center. His work, on 
a high professional level, is concerned with guided missile instrumenta- 

C. J. is now in his early forties, married, and the father of three 
children. He is active in school and community affairs and his hobbies 
include music, photography, and reading. Among the magazines read 
regularly are the Atlantic Monthly and Scientific American, and books 
he has recently read include Modern Arms and Free Men ( Vannevar 
Bush), Language in Action (Hayakawa), and Human Destiny (Le- 
comte du Noiiy). His Binet IQ at age 10 was 154 and his Terman 
Group Test score in 1928 at age 17 was within a few points of a per- 
fect score. And it was then that the school complained of his argu- 
mentativeness and failure to respond to discipline, and noted his fail- 
ure in various school subjects, despite the A he received in chemistry! 
On the Concept Mastery tests taken in 1940 and 1951 he scored far 
higher than the average college graduate and placed nearly 20 points 
above the average of the gifted men. In view of his continued high in- 
telligence rating and his remarkable scientific ability especially in 
physics and engineering one wonders how much farther he might 
have gone and how much greater might have been his contribution to 
knowledge had his talents been recognized early and adequate guidance 
and motivation been provided. 


According to the 1955 reports, one-half of the gifted women were 
housewives with no outside employment, 42 percent held full-time jobs, 
and about 8 percent were working part-time. The occupational picture 
changes, however, when viewed according to marital status. Only 29 
percent of the married women were working wives on a full-time basis 
and 10 percent had part-time employment. The three single women 
not holding regular jobs are financially independent and engage in vol- 
unteer welfare work and various creative activities, such as painting, 
dress design, and writing. One of the women in this category has pub- 
lished several books for children; another, for several years was a 
designer for an exclusive dress shop. Four-fifths of the divorced and 
widowed were employed full-time and 1 percent part-time. Table 29 
gives the occupational status according to marital status. 




Marital Status 

Single Married Widowed or Total 


N % N % N % N % 

Housewife, not employed 290 61.2 13 18.1 303 49.7 

Employed full-time 59 92.2 138 29.1 56 77.8 253 41.5 

Employed part-time 46 9.7 1 1.4 47 7.7 

Independent means, not 

employed 3 4.7 3 .5 

Incapacitated by health 

reasons 2 3.1 .. .. 2 2.7 4 .6 

N 64 474 72 610 

Status not ascertained (includes 17 women lost since 1928 or earlier) . . 19 
Total 629 

Occupational status is associated to some extent with the amount 
of education as shown in Table 30. The women who have taken ad- 
vanced degrees are much more likely to be employed than are those 
with only a bachelor's degree or those who had from one to four years 
of college work. All but two of the 25 women with a Ph.D., M.D., or 
LL.B. were following careers either on college faculties or in profes- 
sional practice. One woman with an M.D. and one with an LL.B,, both 
of whom previously engaged in professional practice, are now house- 
wives. For the total college graduate group the proportion employed 
is 43 percent as compared with 37 percent of the nongradiiates. It might 
be noted here that although only 29 percent of the currently married 
women are employed, 79 percent of them are college graduates. 


Percentages in Educational Categories 

Graduate study 

Gradtt- 1 or more years, 


1 to 4 years 



.te degree no degree 
N = 137) (N=104) 

<N = 175) 

of college 
(N = 100) 

(N = 94) 

Housewife, not employed 

36.5 40.4 




Employed full-time . 

59.1 43.3 




Employed part-time 

4.4 15.4 




Single, not employed. . . * 








The employed women represent a wide range of occupations that 
do not fit into a formal classification such as the Minnesota Occupa- 
tional Scale used for the gifted men. Their occupations have been 
grouped instead into three broad categories : (1) professional and semi- 
professional ; (II) business occupations; and (III) a small group of 
miscellaneous occupations not covered in either Group I or Group II. 
Table 31 lists the 1955 occupations and gives the percentage of employed 
women in each. The 17 women on college faculties include, in addi- 
tion to 1 1 who are in the fields of the humanities and social sciences, four 
biologists, one zoologist, and one biochemist. Five are full professors 
and 3 of these five also hold administrative positions : one as Dean of the 
Faculty and Provost, one as Dean of Women, and one as chairman of 
her department. Another 5 women hold associate professor rank and 
4 are assistant professors; the remaining 3 faculty members are re- 
search scientists, all in the biological sciences. Grouped together as the 
"higher professions" are those vocations which require specialized 
training and graduate degrees. These include six physicians, three 
clinical psychologists, two lawyers, and a research metallurgist. The 
category "other professions" in Group I includes two pharmacists, two 
laboratory technicians, a missionary, an aerodynamist, and a court re- 
porter. Group III is composed of occupations that do not fit into either 
of the other groups. These include telephone operator, sales clerk, and 
industrial worker. 

Schoolteaching, including elementary and secondary administrative 
and supervisory positions, is the most frequent occupation, accounting 
for almost one-fourth of the employed women. In second place are the 
secretaries, stenographers, and similar office workers with about one- 
fifth of the total. The women on college faculties or in the higher pro- 
fessions rank third with 11 percent. The remainder are distributed 
over a number of occupation, all with less than 10 percent representa- 


I. Professional N % 

Members of college or university faculties 17 6.7 

Higher professions 12 4.7 

Administrators and supervisors, elementary or high school 7 2.8 

School teachers or counselers 53 20.9 

Social workers 20 7.9 


TABLE 31 (Continued) 

Authors or journalists 17 6.7 

Librarians 14 5.5 

Arts and music 7 2.8 

Nurses 6 2.4 

Economists, statisticians, and kindred 5 2.0 

Other professions 7 2.8 

II. Business 

Secretary, stenographer, bookkeeper, or other office 

workers 50 19.8 

Executive and managerial 20 7.9 

Public relations, advertising, promotion 6 2.4 

Real estate and investments 5 2.0 

III. Miscellaneous 7 2.8 

Total employed 253 

Although fewer than one-half of the women were engaged in careers 
outside the home in 1955, and the jobs they chose have often been of a 
less demanding type in order not to interfere too greatly with home- 
making, there have nevertheless been some remarkable vocational ac- 
complishments. A few examples of outstanding careers follow. 

Several scientists have made important contributions to research to 
the extent that 7 women are listed in American Men of Science. 5 Five 
of these are in the field of the biological sciences and two in the social 
sciences. Among the distinguished biological scientists is one who 
played an important part in the development of the vaccine for polio- 
myelitis and who is continuing to work in virus research. The social 
and behavioral sciences include several women who are outstanding in 
the fields of psychology, education, and social welfare. Two of the 
women psychologists are among those listed in American Men of 

Only one woman is working as a high-level physical scientist. Her 
undergraduate major was engineering and her graduate work was 
taken in a related physical science. Since taking her Doctor of Science 
degree, she has worked in private industry where she has successfully 
competed with men for advancement and is now one of the most highly 
paid women in our group. In addition to research and the publication of 
many technical papers, she has taken out three patents. This woman 
is also a gifted linguist and has translated several of her own more im- 
portant works into French and German. 


But not all the conspicuous achievements have been in the sci- 
ences. Several outstanding records have been made in the humanities 
and arts as well as in the business world. One of our most distinguished 
women is a gifted poet whose work has received wide recognition and 
who is rated among the outstanding poets of our day. Her writing has 
appeared in a number of literary magazines as well as in several antholo- 
gies. She has published four volumes of poetry and various essays, 
critiques, and monographs in the field of literature and philosophy. 
Others among the women writers are a feature article writer who con- 
tributes to leading magazines, two novelists, a member of the editorial 
staff and an executive editor of a nationally circulated magazine, and 
still another is the editor of a small literary magazine. Other writers 
include the author of a successful Broadway play (also produced as a 
motion picture), several journalists including a reporter and feature 
writer for a metropolitan daily paper, and several technical writers. 
One of our women is a gifted painter whose work has appeared by invi- 
tation in many exhibits and who has won considerable recognition. 
Several women have been phenomenally successful in business ; two of 
these are in the real estate business, another is an executive buyer In 
a large department store, and still another, herself a pharmacist, is the 
owner and operator of a prosperous pharmacy. 

One of the most interesting, versatile, and successful of the women 
has had three careers in addition to that of housewife and mother. This 
subject, F. B., was first tested for the gifted group at the age of 7 years 
10 months and was found to have an IQ of 188. At that early age she 
was already showing remarkable literary ability. She had begun mak- 
ing up stories and rhymes at the age of three but few of these early 
compositions were preserved. At six years she was given a typewriter 
and began recording her own work. From the age of 6 to 11 she fre- 
quently illustrated her stories and poems by crayon or water-color 
drawings. Her childhood poetry was compared most favorably by a 
board of judges with literary juvenilia by Tennyson, Blake, Longfellow, 
Wordsworth, Shelley, and others. Until the age of 11 she read and 
studied at home under her mother's direction. She then entered the 
ninth grade of a private girls* school and completed high school at 14J4 
years. High-school graduation was followed by entrance at a coedu- 
cational university where she was graduated three years later at the 
age of 17. During her high-school and college years her interests turned 
to clay modeling and painting, both oil and water color. However, 


writing continued to be her main interest and her first novel (not pub- 
lished) was completed before her eighteenth birthday. 

After college F. B.'s interests were directed more and more to art, 
particularly sculpture, although she did take time to write a short novel, 
which was published in 1938. In the mid-1930's she went abroad and 
spent several years studying sculpture with an outstanding master. 
During this period she produced several pieces of sculpture which have 
received high praise. She was only 27 years old when the threat of 
World War II forced her to return to the United States, where she con- 
tinued her work in the arts, not only in sculpture but also in design and 
decoration. F, B. was married during the war and accompanied her 
husband to the military posts at which he was stationed. After her son 
was born and the family was again settled, she became interested in 
real estate investments. She began buying, remodeling and redecorat- 
ing older houses and then selling to advantage. She developed this 
interest into a highly successful financial venture, which she continued 
for some years. Lately, she has given more time to her artistic work 
and recently completed, as a volunteer service, a mural in sculpture for 
an interracial youth center. This work has received much attention 
and praise not only for its artistic merit, but also for its originality in 
the use of novel materials and techniques, hitherto untried. 

The many interests of this woman her literary career, her later 
business career, and her continuous work in the arts have not inter- 
fered with her fourth career as a housewife. She has maintained a 
home, directed her son's development, and shared in her husband's 
interests, all successfully. 

There have been many others among the women whose achieve- 
ments, though important, have not received the public recognition of 
the examples given above. Among these are two missionaries, both of 
whom have visited us and given first-hand accounts of their work in 
foreign lands. Each determined at an early age to become a missionary 
and planned her education accordingly. S. B. was the valedictorian of 
her high-school graduating class and was also voted the best all-round 
girl in the school on the basis of the following characteristics : the most 
intellectual, the wittiest, the friendliest, and the best natured. After 
college graduation she taught school for a few years before being sent 
to China as a missionary. Her first years in this work were spent in a 
country village and from there she joined the staff of a teachers col- 
lege. In all, S. B. spent 10 years in China, the last two and a half under 


the Communist regime. When eventually the mission was withdrawn 
owing to the unfavorable political situation, she returned to the United 
States. After a year of graduate work at the university she was ap- 
pointed to a teaching position with the Institute of International Edu- 
cation in Indonesia, but it is still her hope to return some day to China. 

W. H., after receiving a teacher's certificate, joined the Sudan In- 
terior Mission and was sent to Nigeria where she has worked for the 
past 20 years except for occasional furloughs. After some years teach- 
ing in village schools, she organized a teacher-training school for na- 
tives. Her most recent post has been supervisor of schools in northern 
Nigeria. These are, for the most part, one-teacher schools in widely 
scattered bush areas. Hers has been a life of tremendous work and many 
hardships, but a rich and rewarding one. One of her first undertakings 
was to learn the native language and she has translated many religious 
works and written several books in this language. Her writings include 
in addition to a number of religious tracts and devotional booklets, a 
translation of the story of Dr. Carver, a book on the life of St. Paul, and 
a book on the history of the missions. 

The distinguished records and notable accomplishments, however, 
have not been limited to the so-called "career" women. We should not 
overlook the women whose careers have been limited to the role of wife 
and mother or to community welfare and civic betterment on a volun- 
teer basis. Among the former is H. M., one of our most highly intelli- 
gent women. Her childhood IQ of 192 was one of the highest in the 
entire group and later tests also placed her at or near the top of the 
group. This subject, especially talented in mathematics, took her A.B. 
in astronomy with honors at the age of 20 and continued her studies 
for a master's degree in the same field. This was followed by marriage 
to a fellow scientist at the age of 22. She taught science in a junior 
college for two years after her marriage until the birth of her first set 
of twins. In a period of 11 years she and her husband became the 
parents of eight children, including three sets of twins. This has left 
little time for any kind of professional career or even community ac- 
tivity, although she has maintained her interest in science and reads 
widely in both scientific and more general areas of literature. With 
two children still in the toddler stage, her only activity outside the 
home has been P.T.A. In view of this subject's extraordinarily high 
IQ in childhood, her Concept Mastery scores are of especial interest. 
Because this family has lived in the east since 1940, it was not possible 


to give Form A until 1948 and Form T was given in 1950, both 
during visits to Stanford University. At both testings H. M. made 
scores close to the highest of any made by the gifted subjects, and 
her husband, who took only Form A, made an almost equally high 

A number of housewives, less occupied with children than the 
woman just described, have found time to contribute to community and 
civic activities, many as leaders, holding various positions of responsi- 
bility. Among these is J. M. who, by the age of 37, not only had been 
elected president of the national alumnae association of her college, but 
also had been elected to the college Board of Trustees. 

This subject was married at the age of 23 to another member of the 
gifted group who has become one of the most successful lawyers in our 
group. For the first few years after her marriage, J. M. worked as a 
private secretary but for the past ten years her time has been given to 
volunteer work with such organizations as the American Cancer So- 
ciety, the Girl Scouts, and the Crippled Children's Society. Since she 
has no children, she has been able to give considerable time to service 
activities as well as to such organizations as the World Affairs Council 
and the League of Women Voters. She has been especially active in the 
American Cancer Society, holding important executive office and board 
memberships at both state and local levels. 

She has also published a book (a historical biography) and has 
served as editor of organization bulletins and as publicity writer for 
the groups with which she works. 

The foregoing examples are not typical of the gifted women ; few, 
if any, are so versatile in talent as F. B. ; no one else, scientist or not, 
has eight children, and while there may be others as active in service 
and community work as J. M., none has combined this with such honors 
as election to a college Board of Trustees and the publication of a book. 
However, most of the women in our group, both housewives and career 
women, have engaged in many activities and have followed a variety 
of interests outside their homes and jobs, which are described at greater 
length elsewhere. 


Although money is certainly not the only or final criterion of suc- 
cess, it cannot be denied that financial reward is our best objective 


measure of progress on the vocational ladder. The information sched- 
ules at each follow-up investigation since 1936 have asked for a report 
of earned income of both the subject and the spouse, and in recent years 
the amount of income from sources other than earnings has also been 
called for. The income data were requested not only for the calendar 
year immediately preceding the time of inquiry but also for the years 
that had elapsed since the last follow-up, thus giving us a continuous 
record. The significance of any given income is determined by the 
economic climate in which it is received ,* this is especially true during 
periods of mounting inflation such as have prevailed during the last 
decade. By current standards incomes that stood high in relation to 
the average a few years ago may now seem mediocre or even low. For 
this reason our discussion of income, both earned and total family in- 
come, will be limited in this chapter to the most recent figures available ; 
that is, the 1954 annual income as reported in the 1955 questionnaire. 


Adequate information on earned income was supplied by 673 of the 
men, and Table 32 gives the median and percentage distribution of 
earnings both for the total group and for subgroupings according to 
age. Four-fifths of the group were 40 to 49 years old with more than 
half (57% ) under 45 years of age and 10 percent under age 40. By age, 
the highest median income ($10,283) was reported by the 45- to 49- 
year-old men, and, as was to be expected, the lowest income was that of 
the 30- to 39-year age group. For the total group, ages combined, the 
1954 median earned income was $9,640 and the income ranged from 
around $4,000 to $400,000 per year. As shown in Table 32, 10 percent 
of men (all ages) earned $25,000 or more in 1954. The incomes of the 
67 men who constituted the top 10 percent were distributed cumu- 
latively as follows by income level : 

Earnings N % Earnings N % 

$100,000 or more 5 0.7 $50,000 or more 13 1 .9 

$ 75,000 or more 6 0.9 $25,000 or more 67 10.0 

One of the men in the $75,000 to $100,000 bracket whose 1954 in- 
come was $95,000 had, in each of the three preceding years, exceeded 
$100,000 ; in fact, the six persons with highest incomes, ranging from 


$400,000 to $95,000, had each averaged $100,000 or more per year for 
the three-year period 1952-54. 


^ ,. Percent at each age who earn specified amounts 

Percent of ~ 

Total 30-39 years* 40-44 years 45-49 years 5 0-5 4 years 
Earned Income (N = 673) (N = 71) (N = 313) (N= 228) (N = 61) 

$25,000 and over 10.0 7.0 9.9 11.8 6.6 

15,000-24,999 17.5 14.1 18.8 16.2 19.7 

10,000-14,999 20.2 16.9 19.5 23.3 16.4 

9,000-9,999 6.4 4.2 8.0 4.8 6.6 

8,000-8,999 8.0 4.2 7.7 9.7 8.2 

7,000-7,999 9.7 15.5 9.6 8.8 6.6 

6,000-6,999 11.9 11.3 12.8 10.1 14.7 

5,000-5,999 7,9 14.1 6.7 7.4 8.2 

Less than $5,000.... 8.5 12.7 7.0 7.9 13.1 

Median earned income $9,640 $7,773 $9,780 $10,283 $8,900 

* Includes 5 men age 30-34 and 66 men age 35-39. 

The relationship of earnings to educational attainment is shown in 
Table 33. The number of M.D. and LL.B. degrees will not agree with 
the number of men in those professions in 1954 since some of the physi- 
cians are full-time members of medical-school faculties and some of the 
lawyers have left the practice of law for other fields. For the same 
reasons, the median incomes by degree for these two professions will not 
agree with the median reported for men actually practicing these pro- 
fessions in 1954. In considering the role of education in income it is 
interesting to find that those who did not go beyond high school have 
the same median income as those college graduates who had one or 
more years of graduate study beyond the bachelor's but did not take 
a graduate degree. Furthermore, those men who had 3 to 4 years of 
college work but who did not graduate, exceeded both groups just men- 
tioned. In fact, only one of the six men ranking highest in income was 
a college graduate. The top man ($400,000) did not attend college at 
all, another had 1 year of college, and three had between 2 and 3 years 
of college work. But these are very exceptional cases. The median 
income for all college graduates is 37 percent greater than that of those 
who did not complete college ; namely, $10,725 for the college graduates 
as compared with $7,812 for the nongraduates. 




Percent earning specified amounts 



or more 




Less than 



$ 8,917 





























Master's or 

other pro- 










Graduate study 












degree .... 162 9,850 27.0 22.0 24.5 


Total college 
graduates 490 

3-4 years 
college .... 67 

1-2 years 
college .... 34 

and special 
training ... 30 

graduation or 
equivalent. . 52 


10,725 31.8 21.2 24.4 15.8 6.8 

8,333 15.1 18.2 31.8 27.3 7.6 

7,500 17.6 17.6 17.6 29.4 17.6 

6,750 6.7 16.7 23.3 33.3 20.0 

8,167 20.8 16.7 22.9 29.2 10.4 

Table 34 lists In rank order according to median income the occu- 
pations in which 5 or more men are engaged. The figures illustrate the 
considerable variation in the amount to be earned in particular occu- 
pations even among men as highly selected both in mental ability and 
in education as our group. For example, among the university faculty 
group, which ranks 17th in income with a median of $8,167, the top 
man with earnings of $25,000 is only slightly above the average for 
the physician group. The physicians in professional practice (full-time 
medical school faculty not included) rank first with a median annual net 


income* in 1954 of $23,500, followed by executives in major business 
or industry with $17,680, and the producers, directors, and writers in 
the entertainment field are next with $17,500. Lawyers with $15,970 
and architects with $15,000 are in fourth and fifth places, respectively. 
At the bottom of the list are the clergymen with a median annual 
income of $4,500. Although practicing physicians rank first in median 
income, the highest individual incomes are to be found in several other 
fields. The 6 men in approximately the top one percent of the total 
group whose 1954 earnings ranged from just under $100,000 to 
$400,000 include two men who were in the field of land development 
and home building, including insurance and financing; a motion pic- 
ture director, a television writer and producer, a playwright, and a 
business executive engaged in manufacturing and the development of 
oil properties. 



(Includes only fields in which 5 or more men were engaged) 

Occupation N Median 

1. Physicians (practicing) 36 $23,500 

2. Executives in major business or industry 73 17,680 

3. Radio, TV, or motion picture arts : 

producer, director, engineer, writer, 

etcetera 19 17,500 

4. Lawyers 65 15,970 

5. Architects 8 15,000 

6. Economists 5 13,750 

7. Executives in banking, real estate, 

finance, insurance 41 12,500 

8. Owners and executives in building and 

construction trades 9 11,500 

9. Chemists and physicists 26 10,835 

10. Musicians and actors (Le., performers) . . 5 10,830 

11. Geologists and related 7 9,750 

12. Personnel, labor relations, vocational 

placement officials 9 9,500 

13. Advertising, publicity, public relations. . 17 9,250 

14. Engineers 45 9,100 

15. Sales managers, technical or engineering 

salesmen 22 9,000 

16. Army or Navy officers 14 9,000 

17. College or university faculty 52 8,167 

* Net income of the self-employed includes earnings after deductions for busi- 
ness expenses but before income taxes. 


TABLE 34~-(Contmued) 

Occupation N Median 

18. Authors or journalists 14 8,000 

19. Accountants, statisticians, and kindred 

occupations 26 7,600 

20. Office managers, purchasing agents, 

traffic managers, et cetera 10 7,500 

21. School teachers or administrators 29 6,792 

22. Draftsmen, surveyors, specification 

writers, et cetera 7 6,250 

23. Owners and managers, retail business. . . 11 6,125 

24. Protective service occupations* 11 5,900 

25. Agricultural occupations 9 5,850 

26. Skilled trades, craftsmen, and foremen. . 25 5,700 

27. Clerical and retail sales occupations 25 5,125 

28. Clergymen 5 4,500 

* Members of police and fire departments with, rank of sergeant and above and noncom- 
missioned officers in military services. 

We do not have adequate comparative data on income. What is 
needed is a breakdown of earned income of the male population in 
general by age, education, and occupation, for 1954. Although we lack 
the information for a precise comparison, the figures available indicate 
that the gifted men are doing well financially. The Statistical Abstract 
of the United States** gives the 1954 median income for occupational 
categories grouped according to the occupation of the head of the spend- 
ing unit. The figures are as follows : 

a. Professional and semiprofessional .$6,020 

b. Managerial 5,800 

c. Self-employed 5,710 

d. Clerical and sales 3,980 

e. Skilled and semiskilled 4,390 

Categories a, b, and r, although perhaps more inclusive, can be con- 
sidered roughly comparable to the gifted occupational groups I and II 
where the median 1954 earned income was $10,556. In contrast to the 
medians of around $4,000 for categories d and e, the gifted men in 
corresponding occupations (Groups III and V of the Minnesota Occu- 
pational Scale) had a 1954 median earned income of $5,750. Although 
the gifted men have not reached the age of peak earnings in the pro- 
fessional and business occupations, in the above comparisons they are 
at an advantage since their group does not include the younger or older 
workers. It must be remembered that these figures are only approxi- 
mations, but the margin of difference is wide enough to permit the con- 


elusion that the gifted men are above average in earnings, compared 
with the generality of men in like fields. 


Information on 1954 earned income was received from 184 of the 
253 fully employed women. Table 35 gives the median income and the 
percent distribution according to income level. The average income of 
the employed women was $4,875. Earnings of $10,000 or more were 
reported by 6 percent of the women and an income of $5,000 or more 
was reported by almost half (47%) of the group. 


Earnings N % 

$10,000 or more 11 6.0 

7,000 or more 31 16.8 

6,000 or more 50 27.2 

5,000 or more 86 46.7 

4,000 or more 134 72.8 

3,000 or more 162 88.0 

Less than 3,000 22 12.0 

Median earned income $4,875 

A comparison of income by amount of education shows that the 
median for college graduates is $5,217 as compared with $3,666 for 
those with one to four years of college and $4,250 for those who didn't 
go to college at all. It is interesting also to find that the women who took 
only a bachelor's degree (no graduate work) were earning slightly less 
in 1954 than the high-school graduate group, namely, $4,056 as com- 
pared with $4,250. Higher degrees, however, are accompanied by 
higher incomes and the total college graduate group earns substantially 
more than either of the nongraduate groups. Annual incomes (1954) of 
$6,000 or more were reported by more than two-thirds of those with a 
Ph.D., M.D., or LL.B. and by about 38 percent of the women with a 
master's or similar degree, and by a third of all college graduates. Earn- 
ings of the gifted women according to amount of education are given 
in Table 36. Education appears to be a less important factor in earn- 
ings In the case of the gifted women than among women in general. 
Havemann and West 17 report that women college graduates earn more 
than two and one-half times as much as the average working woman. 
In the case of the gifted, however, those women with a college degree 


earned only about one-fourth more than did the gifted women who did 
not go beyond high school. 


Med" Proportion Earning Specified Amounts 

N Earned $6,000 or more Less than $4,000 

Income N % N % 

PhD., M.D., LL.B.. 19 $7,500 13 68.4 .... 

Master's or professional 
degree 48 5,455 18 37.5 5 10.4 

One or more years graduate 
study without graduate de- 
gree (may include teaching 
credential or similar certifi- 

Bachelor's degree only. . . . 

.. 39 


5 12.8 

19 48.7 

All college graduates 138 5,217 46 33.3 28 20.3 

1 to 4 years college (not 

graduated) 18 3,666 1 5.6 12 66.7 

Nocollege 28 4,250 3 10.7 12 42.9 

The relationship of income to occupation is shown in Table 37. 
The women on college faculties and those in the higher professions 
(law, medicine, and so on) averaging $6,833 have the highest income. 
For the 15 faculty women in this group the median is $5,700. Teachers 
(below college) and school administrators are in second place with a 
median of $5,400, followed by miscellaneous professions with $4,710 
and, ranking last, the business occupations with a median of $3,719. 
The highest individual income ($24,000) is that of a physician. Others 
earning $15,000 or more are: another physician, a research scientist 
(industry), a pharmacist (owner), a lawyer, and a hospital adminis- 


(Includes only fields in which 15 or more women were engaged) 

N Median 

College faculties and higher professions. . 25 $6,833 

School teachers or administrators 48 5,400 

Other professions 51 4,710 

Business occupations 60 3,719 



In addition to data on the earned income of the subjects, the 1955 
Information Blank also called for the earned income of the spouse and 
for the approximate amount of family income from sources other than 
earnings (investments, trust funds, et cetera). The three sources of 
income, i.e., earnings of subject, earnings of spouse, and income from 
other sources, were combined to arrive at the total family income. Total 
family income includes not only the earnings of the fully employed but 
also those of part-time workers. Single persons are not included in 
the presentation of data on family income. 

Table 38 gives the median income and the percent distribution by 
income levels of the 1954 family incomes. Median total family incomes 
of $11,582 and $9,740 were reported by the men and women, respec- 
tively. For all families, i.e., gifted men and women combined, the 
median was $10,866. Nearly one-third had incomes of $15,000 or more 
and 12 percent were in the $25,000-and-over bracket. 


Gifted Men Gifted Women All Gifted Subjects 
and Spouses and Spouses and Spouses 

(N = 644) (N = 454) (N = 1,098) 

% % % 

$25,000 or more 13.1 9.6 11.7 

15,000 or more 34.1 23.7 29.8 

10,000 or more 61.1 48.3 55.8 

7,000 or more 84.3 73.7 80.0 

5,000 or more 96.0 90.2 93.6 

Less than 5,000 4.0 9.7 6.4 

Median family 
income $11,582 $9,740 $10,866 

Just as the individual earned income of the gifted subjects compares 
favorably with that for the generality, so also does total family income. 
We have compared the family incomes of the gifted subjects with the 
incomes of the U.S. urban white families who resemble the gifted group 
more closely in socio-economic status than does the total population. 
According to census figures, 40 the median total money income in 1955 
for the economically favored urban white families was $5,069. One 
percent had incomes of $15,000 or higher and 63 percent of families 
had incomes below $5,000. As shown in Table 38, the 1954 median 


family Income for the gifted subjects was more than twice that of the 
white urban group ($10,866 versus $5,069). Furthermore, incomes of 
$15,000 or more were reported for 30 percent of the gifted families and 
only 6 percent of the gifted fell below $5,000 in family income. Again, 
it should be pointed out that age is not controlled in these comparisons. 


To supplement the information already presented about the occupa- 
tions of the gifted men and women and their vocational achievements 
and success as measured by honors, recognition, and financial reward, 
further information about vocations in terms of personal satisfactions 
has been provided in the Supplementary Biographical Data Blank. This 
blank, filled out during the 1950-52 follow-up, included the following 
question : Which of the following best describes your feeling about your 

present vocation? (Check) Deep satisfaction and interest ; Fairly 

content ; No serious discontent, but do not find it particularly in- 
teresting or satisfying ; Discontented but will probably stick it 

out ; Strongly dislike and hope to change Additional space 

was provided for comments or elaborations of response. 

Approximately half of the men expressed deep satisfaction and in- 
terest in their work and another 37 percent stated they were fairly 
content. Only a small minority (6%) reported themselves seriously 
discontented. Even more women than men were content with their 
vocational choice ; over 55 percent found deep satisfaction in their voca- 
tions and only 3 percent reported serious discontent. Table 39 gives 
the distribution of responses to this question separately for 600 men 
and 428 women. 

When the opinions on vocational satisfaction are examined accord- 



Men Women 

Feeling about Vocation (N = 600) (N = 428) 

1. Deep satisfaction and interest 49.2 55.4 

2. Fairly content 37.2 35.2 

3. No serious discontent but not particu- 

larly satisfying 7.6 5.9 

4. Discontented but will probably stick 

it out 5.0 2.6 

5. Strongly dislike and hope to change 1.0 0.9 

























































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ing to particular occupations, some interesting differences appear. The 
comparisons for men have been limited to those occupations in which 
replies were received from 15 or more persons. Table 40 gives the 
percentage distribution of vocational satisfaction according to occupa- 
tion for men, and Table 41 shows the relationship of vocational satis- 
faction to occupational status for women. 

As shown in Table 40, those men who are in such Group III occu- 
pations as the skilled crafts, or clerical and sales work have the smallest 
proportion (28% and 27%, respectively) who report deep satisfaction 
and interest in their work. An additional 41 percent of men in each of 
these occupations, however, said they were fairly content and none ex- 
pressed strong dislike or desire to change. Of all occupations, the 
physicians had the highest percentage (84%) in category 1 (deep satis- 
faction), and only 5 percent of physicians expressed vocational dis- 
content. On the other hand, all of the men in the banking and finance 
occupations, all those in the advertising and public relations group, and 
all the chemists and physicists, fell in categories 1 or 2. 

The women in the professional and semiprofessional occupations are 
the most satisfied group vocationally, with almost 95 percent reporting 
themselves at least content, and two-thirds expressing deep satisfaction 
in their work. Somewhat more than one-half of full-time housewives 
reported satisfaction in their work and 37 percent said they were fairly 
content. Least satisfied among the women were the part-time workers, 
nearly all of whom are also housewives ; however, the number of per- 
sons in the part-time category is too small for the figures to be very 
meaningful. It should be noted that of the 74 women who omitted this 
item in the questionnaire, 67 were housewives. 


Full-time Employment 

^Profes- Business 

Housewife, ^ sional and and 

no outside Part-time semipro- miscel- 

employment employment fessional laneous 

(N = 215) (N = 23} (N = 129) (N = 61) 
Feeling about Vocation % % % % 

1. Deep satisfaction and interest 53.1 43.5 65.9 44.2 

2. Fairly content 36,6 39.1 28.7 42.6 

3. No serious discontent but not 

particularly satisfying 6.6 13.0 3.9 6.6 

4. Discontented but will probably 

stick it out 2.8 4.4 1.5 3.3 

5. Strongly dislike and hope to change 0.9 ... ... 3.3 


Since only a small minority of men and women express discontent 
with their vocation, comparisons of vocational satisfaction with other 
variables are not very reliable. However, we have compared vocational 
satisfaction with earned income for men. (The relatively small number 
of women with earnings coupled with the concentration at categories 
1 and 2 for vocational satisfaction do not warrant such a comparison 
for women.) For men we find the expected trend of decline in voca- 
tional satisfaction with decline in earned income. The figures are as 
follows : 

Gifted Men 

Feeling about Vocation N 1949 Median Earned Income* 

Deep satisfaction and interest 271 $7,741 

Fairly content 208 6,718 

No serious discontent 38 6,000 

Discontented or strongly dislike. ... 34 5,500 

* The reader is reminded that the income used here is that for the year 1949 as 
given in the 1950 General Information Blank. The 1949 income for the gifted, just 
as for the generality, is considerably less than that for 1954 reported elsewhere in 
this chapter. Because data on vocational satisfaction were obtained in 1950-52, the 
1949 income is more pertinent to these comparisons. 

There is a much more marked relationship between earned income 
of men and the subject's opinion on how well he has lived up to his in- 
tellectual abilities. The biographical data blank asked the subjects to 
check in a list of six the answer that best described the extent to which 
they felt they had, on the whole, not just vocationally or economically, 
lived up to their intellectual abilities. The six response choices ranged 
from "Fully" to "A total failure" ; however, no one among the gifted 
men checked the last response. The median 1949 earned incomes ac- 
cording to opinion on this variable are as follows : 

Intellectual abilities lived up to: N 1949 Median Earned Income 

Fully 23 $11,875 

Reasonably well 335 7,355 

Considerably short 165 6,339 

Far short or largely a failure 46 4,917 

A comparison of the occupational status of women with their opinion 
on how well they have lived up to their intellectual abilities brings out 
some interesting differences. The figures given in Table 42 show that 
more than two-thirds of the women in the professional and sernipro- 
fessional occupations thought that they had made use of their intel- 
lectual abilities either "Reasonably weir (63%) or "Fully'' (6%). 
Slightly more than half of the housewives and slightly less than half 


of the women in business and related occupations considered that they 
have lived up to their intellectual abilities. At the other extreme, 9 per- 
cent of the housewives and 10 percent of the business women replied 
that they have fallen far short or were total failures. There were also 
38 women (29%) among the professional and semiprofessional group 
who felt that they were considerably short of living up to their intel- 
lectual abilities and three women at this occupational level thought that 
they had fallen far short of realizing their potentialities. The number 
of part-time workers is too small to be conclusive; however, they re- 
sembled the housewives in their replies to this item. 



Full-time Employment 

Professional Business and 

Part-time and semipro miscellaneous 

Extent abilities lived Housewife employment fessional occupations Total 

up to N % N % N % N % N % 

1. Fully 7 2.7 1 3.7 8 6.1 1 1.6 17 3.5 

2. Reasonably 

well 131 49.6 14 51.9 82 62.6 29 46.0 256 52.8 

3. Considerably 

short ..... 102 38.6 9 33.3 38 29.0 27 42.8 176 36.3 

4. Far short ... 19 7.2 2 7.4 3 2.3 3 4.8 27 5.6 

5. Consider life 

largely a 

failure.... 41 1] 1} 6] 

h 1.9 [ 3.7 I 4.8 [ 1.8 

6. A total failure l] J 2J 3J 
Total ....... 264 27 131 63 485 

Another item in the biographical data blank asked the subjects to 
check in a list of ten those aspects of life from which the greatest satis- 
faction was derived. "Your work itself" was in first place for men with 
mention by close to four-fifths (78%) of those replying. Income, on 
the other hand, ranked sixth as an important source of satisfaction, with 
38 percent of men checking this item. 

Neither "your work itself" nor "your Income" ranked very high 
with women as a source of satisfaction. The former, checked by 47 per- 
cent of women, was in fifth place as a source of satisfaction, ranking 
after marriage, children, social contacts, and avocational interests. In- 
come, mentioned by only 15 percent of women, was at the bottom of the 


There is no composite portrait to be made of the vocational careers 
of the gifted men and women for it is in this area that their many tal- 
ents and great versatility are most evident. The men range in occupa- 
tion from semiskilled labor to top-ranking university administrators, 
famed scientists, literary figures, high level officers and executives in 
business. The group is pretty well concentrated on the upper rungs of 
the vocational ladder with none at the bottom and only a few on the 
lower steps. But there is no evidence that the men with fewer voca- 
tional achievements are any less able intellectually than those who have 
reached high places. In some instances, the choice of vocation was de- 
termined by educational or occupational opportunities, in others by 
health, and in still others it was a matter of deliberate choice of a simple, 
less competitive way of life. 

As for the gifted women, fewer than one-half are employed outside 
the home. Although, for most, a career is not of primary importance, 
a number of women have reached high levels of achievement. As a 
group, however, the accomplishments of the gifted women do not com- 
pare with those of the men. This is not surprising since it follows the 
cultural pattern to which most of the gifted women as well as women 
in general have succumbed. Not only may job success interfere with 
marriage success, but women who do seek a career outside the home 
have to break through many more barriers and overcome many more 
obstacles than do men on the road to success. Although the gifted 
women equaled or excelled the men in school achievement from the first 
grade through college, after school days were over the great majority 
ceased to compete with men in the world's work. This characteristic 
appears to be due to lack of motivation and opportunity rather than to 
lack of ability. Furthermore, an evaluation of achievement in terms of 
vocational accomplishment excludes the cultural contributions which 
the great majority of these women have made in many indirect and in- 
tangible ways and which perhaps are never properly evaluated. 

In the following chapter we will describe some of the avocational 
interests of both men and women and discuss their participation in 
community life and their contributions to civic betterment. 



Among the characteristics that distinguished this group of subjects in 
childhood and youth was the breadth and versatility of their interests. 89 
It is therefore interesting to investigate the extent to which the adult 
gifted subjects have continued to cultivate interests and activities not 
directly connected with their vocations. In order to obtain information 
of this kind the 1950 General Information Blank asked the subjects to 
list their avocational interests and hobbies and called also for informa- 
tion on memberships in clubs and organizations, and for a record of 
service activities including participation in community and civic affairs. 
In addition, the subjects were asked to report their publications, if any, 
as well as to describe any other creative work accomplished. The 1955 
Information Blank, though it did not cover as many areas as the 1950 
report, did bring up to date the information on publications and crea- 
tive work of all kinds. 


A wide variety of avocational interests and hobbies were mentioned 
by the 679 men and 510 women who supplied information on this item 
in the 1950 questionnaire. The average number of avocations or hob- 
bies mentioned was 2.8 for men and 3.0 for women. About 5 percent 
of men and 3 percent of women reported no hobbies while 14 percent 
of men and about 17 percent of women reported as many as five or 
more avocational interests. These figures represent an increase over 
those of 1940 when 11 percent of men and 15 percent of women men- 
tioned no hobbies or avocations. In the same period the proportion with 
four or more hobbies increased from 15 to 29 percent for men and from 
21 to 34 percent for women. Age itself is no doubt a factor contributing 
to the greater interest in hobbies and avocations in the late thirties and 
early forties than had been shown ten or twelve years earlier when the 
subjects, at an average age of 29 were just getting launched on their 



careers. Some also were still unmarried in 1940 and more preoccu- 
pied with the opposite sex than with hobbies, while others, recently 
married, were busy with new homes and small children. The greater 
vocational and financial security of 1950 in the case of men and the 
freedom from the care of young children for many women made possible 
the devotion of more time to avocational pursuits. The percentage of 
men and women listing various numbers of hobbies in 1950 is shown 
in Table 43. 




(N = 679) 


(N = 510) 






. . 27.4 

23 1 

Three ..... . .. 


27 3 


.. . 15.3 

17 3 

Five or more 



Although, as would be expected, there is considerable sex difference 
in the particular avocational interests and hobbies mentioned, it is inter- 
esting to find that the three leading avocations are the same for men 
and women though their rank order among the top three differs. The 
category of sports, which includes all active and participating sports 
and athletics as well as the spectator variety, was far ahead of all other 
interests for men with mention by 57 percent. In second place for men 
was music, followed closely by gardening. Among women, music 
ranked first as an avocation, reported by 45 percent; gardening was in 
second place, and sports ranked third. Workshop, in fourth place 
for men, is the expected counterpart of the domestic arts and handwork 
which ranks fourth among women. Only about 4 percent of women 
were interested in photography as a hobby as compared with 17 percent 
of men. On the other hand, the category "Art," which included the 
creative arts and art appreciation and also applied arts such as interior 
decoration, furniture design, house plans, et cetera, ranked fifth for 
women with 26 percent, and was mentioned as well by 11 percent of 
men. Table 44 lists those hobbies reported by as many as 10 percent 
of either men or women. 




Men Women 

(N = 679) (N = 510) 

Sports 57.4 29.2 

Music 33.1 44.9 

Gardening 30.8 41.9 

Home workshop activities 23 . 1 6.1 

Photography 16.9 4.3 

Art (creative and applied arts and art 

appreciation) 11.0 26.3 

Creative writing 9.9 15.0 

Social dancing (includes folk dancing, 

et cetera) 5.0 12.5 

Domestic arts and handwork 2.3 28.5 


The information on hobbies tells only part of the story concerning 
the uses of leisure and means of relaxation. Of particular interest in 
a study of a group selected for intellectual superiority would be a de- 
tailed inquiry into the amount and kind of reading. Unfortunately our 
questions in this area were too general to yield information that can be 
quantified. No inquiry was made regarding amount of reading, and 
the phrasing of the question on reading preferences ("What kind of 
reading do you prefer?") makes it difficult to determine the favorite 
type of reading, since a large proportion of subjects listed more than 
one preference. However, the replies indicated that fiction, mentioned 
by more than two-thirds of the group, is by far the most popular kind 
of reading (and detective fiction ranks high as a favorite in this cate- 
gory) . Biography, history, and travel are also favored but by a smaller 
proportion (35 to 40 percent). Nonfiction dealing with such topics as 
religion, philosophy, sociology, political affairs, or history, is the pre- 
ferred reading of about 15 percent of the group and a preference for 
technical and scientific reading is mentioned by another 15 percent. 
Although the amount of reading was not called for, practically all sub- 
jects indicated a reading interest of some kind, 

A number of subjects have continued to study informally. One- 
fifth of the men and one-fourth of the women reported study in a variety 
of fields either through independent reading or in groups such as the 
Great Books classes. In addition to literature, study in such fields as 
science, philosophy, and foreign languages was frequently mentioned. 



Many o the subjects have displayed special abilities of various 
kinds. Talent along such lines as music, drama, art, mechanics, and 
writing were frequently reported by their parents and teachers. Often 
the special ability, if sufficiently marked, has determined the choice of 
vocation, but for a large number of subjects such talents have found their 
expression in avocational activities and hobbies. 

Outstanding among the special talents noted is that of writing. In 
addition to the work of the career writers and journalists, a vast amount 
of material relating to their work has been published by men and women 
in scientific, technical, and other professional fields, but such profes- 
sional output, even though the primary vocation is not writing, does 
not come under the heading of avocational writing. There are, how- 
ever, between 125 and 150 subjects who write as a hobby or leisure- 
time activity. Of these, some 50 men and 40 women have had their 
work published. Although such writings are most often articles cov- 
ering a variety of topics, they also include a number of short stories, 
poems, and plays as well as 15 nonfiction books and 8 or 10 novels, all 
the work of avocational writers. Especially noteworthy among these 
are the public relations executive, previously mentioned, whose first 
novel was a Book-of-the-Month selection, a banker who has published 
more than 25 short stories, the secretary who wrote a successful "west- 
ern" novel, the army sergeant who writes science-fiction stories, and 
the housewife who has sold three short stories and is now revising a 
promising novel. 

Much of the avocational writing has not been published, often done 
rather for enjoyment and self-expression and, of course, a great deal 
is not of the quality to merit publication. We can, however, look for 
more published material as the group grows older and as leisure time 

A number of other subjects have pursued their specialized gifts only 
as avocations. Among these are several gifted musicians. Musical 
talent, more often than any other gift, has been turned to use as a means 
of livelihood while preparing for another vocation. One man, for ex- 
ample, who has become a research scientist, gave evidence at an early 
age of marked musical ability and for some years he was undecided 


between music and science as a life work. He began concert work at 
the age of 14 and later became a conductor of a civic orchestra. His 
musical talent enabled him to finance several years of graduate study 
and now provides a satisfying avocational outlet. 

A good many of those with dramatic ability are participating in 
such activities as the "Little Theater" or "Children's Theater" or other 
community dramatics. Some are actors while others have engaged in 
stage production or direction in amateur productions. 

Eight or ten members of the group have displayed above-average 
ability in art. Among these are four schoolteachers whose paintings 
have appeared in various exhibits and have been highly praised by 
critics. There are also several amateur photographers whose fine 
camera work has won awards in competitive shows. 

Many other examples of unusual talent along specialized lines 
could be given, but the following two illustrations, while not typical, 
will serve to give some idea of the versatility to be found in the group. 

A woman who by the age of 40 has had several careers. Her first suc- 
cess was in acting. As a child she appeared in motion pictures, then was for 
several years a professional actress in major theatrical productions both in 
London and in New York. She was also a professional dancer and an ama- 
teur championship ice skater. After giving up her professional acting 
career she continued her work in dramatics as an avocation, working chiefly 
with children's theatrical groups. She also possessed unusual talent in draw- 
ing and was commissioned to do the illustrations for two textbooks, one in 
anatomy and one in physiology. She later entered the field of business 
where she has an executive position. She has written several plays that have 
been produced by amateur groups and has also written two novels. Though 
neither of the novels has been published, both have received favorable com- 
ment and one is being considered for publication. 

A man who is a lawyer maintains a limited and highly specialized law 
practice in order to have time for his special interests. Among these are 
research in stereoscopic optics which grew out of his work in photography. 
His research in this field of science is believed so important and valuable 
that the government is very much interested in the results of his project. 
He is also gifted in languages and is proficient in both German and French. 
He does considerable translating, mostly of scientific, technical, and legal 
articles for French and particularly German publications, and has also 
written several original articles and poems published in German periodicals. 
More recently, he has specialized in the Arabic language. He not only 
reads extensively but has also taught courses in Arabic. Military affairs 
are still another avocation, and he is especially active in the National Guard. 


In addition to being a officer in the National Guard, he has prepared in- 
structional material of various kinds, including the development of audio- 
visual training aids. He also contributes articles from time to time to mili- 
tary journals. 


An indication of the social inclinations and group interests of the 
gifted adult is to be found in the number and kinds of memberships 
reported in 1950. Since a number of the affiliations were with business 
or professional and service groups, it is not surprising that a larger 
proportion of men than women belonged to one or more clubs or organ- 
izations. Less than 15 percent of men listed no club or organization 
memberships but 31 percent of women had no organized group affilia- 
tions. The figures on the number of memberships in clubs or organiza- 
tions are as follows for the 680 men and 521 women who replied to this 
item : 

Memberships Men Women 

% % 

None 14.7 31.5 

One 20.0 27.3 

Two 19.8 19.4 

Three 14.6 11.7 

Four 14.3 4.4 

Five or more 16.6 5.7 

Four or more memberships were reported by 31 percent of men 
and 10 percent of women. The organizations were classified according 
to type of activity or interest. The "kinds" of memberships are loose 
groupings with considerable overlap in function. Social overtones are 
found in all the groups and, certainly, service activities are not limited 
to the so-called service organizations. Many of the essentially social 
groups adopt a cause and doubtless many men and women join a serv- 
ice club for social or business reasons. The classification of church- 
related organizations does not include church membership, which will 
be discussed later in this chapter. Rather, it refers to groups made up 
of adherents of particular faiths, e.g., the Women's Society for Christian 
Service, B'nai B'rith, Knights of Columbus, and other groups that com- 
bine religious activity and service functions as well as promoting social 
relationships. The foregoing are examples of the overlapping to be found 
in most of our membership groups with the exception of the military 
organizations. The political and government category is also perhaps 


a more discrete grouping than some of the other categories. It includes 
organizations such as the League of Women Voters, Good Government 
League, American Civil Liberties Union, World Affairs Council, the 
NAACP, the Zionist Organization of America, United World Federal- 
ists, Council for Civic Unity, Americans for Democratic Action, and 
so on. Table 45 gives the proportion of men and women affiliated with 
each type of organization. 



Men Women 

Type o Organization (N = 680) (N = 521) 

Business, professional and kindred 67.2 23.6 

Social and fraternal 39.2 39.9 

Recreational and hobby 15 .4 10.8 

Service (Kiwanis, Rotary, Soroptomist, 

et cetera) 11.6 4.8 

Study and cultural 8.4 9.6 

Politics and government 5.9 8.8 

Church-related 4.9 9.8 

Military (Reserve Officer, National 

Guard, et cetera) 4.7 0.4 

* The percentages will not add to 100, since (1) the same individual may appear in more 
than one category, and (2) 15% of men and 31% o women were not members o any organized 

The business, professional, and other job-related affiliations were 
by far the most frequent type, of membership for men. Two-thirds of 
the men belonged to at least one organization related to their occupa- 
tion. This category included such professional and business groups 
as the American Medical Society, the Bar Association, the Pasteur 
Society, the Underwriters' Club, National Association o Cost Account- 
ants, Western Society of Naturalists, American Rocket Society, the 
Industrial Relations Research Association, and the Chamber of Com- 
merce and similar business groups, to mention only a few of the many 
such organizations. The category also included membership in trade 
unions or guilds to which at least 65 men and 15 or 20 women belonged. 
Among the most frequently mentioned labor organizations were the 
guilds and unions connected with entertainment media such as radio, 
television, motion pictures, and the theater. These included the Musi- 
cians Union, Radio Writers Guild, Dramatists Guild, Radio and Tele- 
vision Directors Guild, Cameraman's Union, and so on. Other organ- 


izations represented by five or more members were the newspaperman's 
guild and various office worker unions. Membership in several other 
guilds and trade unions was reported but there were no more than two 
or three in any one of these. 

Several subjects have been active in the labor movement and have 
held official positions in their unions or in the AF of L or CIO. Promi- 
nent among these is a man with a Ph.D. in economics who holds the 
position of Economic Counsel, directing research and negotiations for 
a trade union. He is a member of the American Economic Association 
and the American Statistical Association as well as of the Labor Council 
of the city in which he works. Two men have been members of a local 
CIO Council, another has been editor of the union paper, and still others 
have held office or done committee work in their organizations. 

Groups organized primarily for social purposes are the second most 
frequent type of membership reported by gifted men, while social groups 
rank first with the women. Approximately two-fifths of both men and 
women belong to one or more clubs, lodges, or other social group. 
Recreational and hobby clubs ranked third in popularity with both men 
and women, though a larger proportion of men than women mentioned 
such groups. The following are examples of some of the groups in this 
category : Garden Club, Little Theater Group, Sports Car Club, Na- 
tional Rifle Association, Camera Club, Folk Dancing Club, Mountain 
Climbing Club, and Choral Society, to mention a few. 

Only the "service clubs" among the remaining categories were 
claimed by as many as 10 percent of the men. No other group had a 
10 percent representation among women, although both the church- 
related groups and the study and cultural organizations were close with 
9 . 8 and 9 . 6 percent respectively. 


Although the data on memberships are interesting, they present 
only one aspect of the gifted adult as a participating member of society. 
To complete the picture, we turn to the subject's report on service 
activities. This item in the 1950 General Information Blank was worded 
as follows : Record of your service activities (such as scout work, wel- 
fare, religious or church work, participation in community and civic 
affairs, P.T.A., etc,). 

The memberships in Table 45 included only private organizations 
with formal membership rolls, as opposed to such community- or nation- 


wide groups as P.T.A., Red Cross, American Cancer Society, Boy 
Scouts (or Girl Scouts), the Y.M.C.A., or any of the other civic or 
community welfare groups. Nearly one-half of the men and two-thirds 
of the women were engaged in one or more of the activities sponsored 
by such groups; in fact, 10 percent of men and nearly 22 percent of 
women mentioned 3 or more community services. In view of their age 
and family status, it is not surprising that the most frequent Interest 
of both men (22%) and of women (48%) was in organizations con- 
cerned with youth. Prominent among these were the P.T.A., the Scouts, 
and the "Y" About 15 percent of men and 10 percent of women have 
served with community health organizations (e.g., Mental Health So- 
ciety), on school boards or as school trustee, in civilian defense pro- 
grams, city planning boards, and with similar organizations. Service 
activities in connection with a church or of a religious nature were re- 
ported by 13 percent of men and 19 percent of women. Volunteer wel- 
fare work with the Red Cross, Crippled Children's Society, Heart As- 
sociation, Community Chest, Alcoholics Anonymous, Grey Ladies, and 
various similar projects was listed by 11 percent of men and 22 per- 
cent of women. 

While the reports on service activities indicate in some degree the 
extent of participation of our gifted group in community life, they do 
not tell the full story. Some subjects are more modest than others or 
attach less importance to their work with the result that their reports 
on this phase of their lives are too general for classification. However, 
even the minimal figures available are impressive evidence of the social 
awareness of the gifted and their willingness to contribute to com- 
munity life. Through membership on boards or in groups that make 
community policy and through other volunteer activities, especially in 
the case of women, a great deal of worth-while work of both "staff" and 
"line" variety is accomplished. 

A number of the subjects have received public recognition and honor 
for their contributions to community welfare and public betterment, 
and some illustrations follow. Among the men there have been : Man 
of the Year (large western city) ; Recognition Medal for Distinguished 
Community Leadership (large western city) ; Outstanding Citizen 
(county award) ; four men with Distinguished Civilian Service Awards ; 
a Special Award for Distinguished Service to Boyhood ; three listings 
in America's Young Men to mention some of the more outstanding. 
Too numerous to cite are those who have held office in the various com- 


munlty service or civic betterment organizations. Included here are 
such positions as membership on the Board of Directors of Jewish Big 
Brothers ; chairman of Budget Committee of Community Chest (metro- 
politan area) ; member, Board of Directors of a city chapter of the 
American Cancer Society; chairman of a County Planning Commis- 
sion ; director of the Legal Aid Society; and president, Youth Welfare 
League. The list of women who have won recognition or held important 
posts in community organizations is long. Some examples follow : Spe- 
cial Service Award (to four women) ; Woman of the Year (in educa- 
tion) ; president of area Girl Scout Council ; president of Women's 
Board, Museum of Art ; appointment to the Board of Education of a 
large city ; chairman of State Committee of League of Women Voters ; 
and appointment to a Grand Jury. The foregoing are illustrations from 
a long list of offices held and citations received by members of the gifted 
group, both men and women. 


Although we inquired into the attitudes and interests of the subjects 
with the results presented above, the questions were not specific so far 
as particular hobbies, interests, or activities were concerned. An excep- 
tion to this was in the matter of religion. The Supplementary Bio- 
graphical Data blank of 1950-52 asked for the amount of religious train- 
ing in youth, the extent of religious inclination as an adult, and the 
religious affiliation. Close to three-fifths of both men and women re- 
ported that they received "very strict" or "considerable" religious train- 
ing ; somewhat more than one-third reported "little," and about 6 per- 
cent said they had no religious training. 

As adults, 38 percent of men and 53 percent of women expressed 
moderate to strong religious inclinations. The 599 men and 491 women 
for whom data are available responded as follows : 

Religious inclination Men Women 

% % 

Strong 10 18 

Moderate 28 35 

Little 34 24 

None at all 28 23 

With respect to religious affiliation, 59 percent of men and 56 per- 
cent of women say they belong to a particular church, congregation, or 
other religion-oriented group. These figures approximate the 57 per- 


cent of the total population (sexes are not reported separately) reported 
as church members in 1950. 45 Among the gifted an additional 8 per- 
cent of each sex, while not formally affiliated with any church or reli- 
gious group, say that they attend services or are inclined toward a par- 
ticular faith. A small group of about 4 percent of men and 2 percent 
of women state that they have a personal faith or are interested in the 
philosophy of religion but that creeds and denominations or other forms 
of organized religion have no appeal for them. Almost 24 percent of 
the men and 32 percent of the women reported that they are not affili- 
ated with any religious group and made no comment regarding their 
attitude toward religion. A small minority (5% of men and 1% of 
women) described themselves as skeptics, agnostics, or, in a few cases, 
as atheists. 

The sex difference in church membership, though small (59% of 
men versus 56% of women), is of interest because it is not in the ex- 
pected direction, since most investigations show that more women than 
men are church members. Havemann and West 17 report that among 
college graduates about 10 percent more women than men are church 


More than four-fifths of the subjects reported an interest in two 
or more avocational pursuits and more than one-half reported three or 
more. The absence of any norms precludes a comparison with the 
general population in this matter, but the data indicate a considerable 

breadth and diversity of interests. 

Many of the special abilities that had been evidenced by the subjects 
in their youth found expression in hobbies and avocations at mid-life. 
Talent in creative writing, art, dramatics, and music was especially note- 

Complete data on the amount and kinds of reading and on reading 
interests are lacking. The information available, however, indicates 
wide reading interests, covering many fields of fiction and nonfiction. 
Study through independent reading or in informal groups and classes 
was also mentioned by a number of subjects. 

Four-fifths of the men and two-thirds of the women reported mem- 
bership in one or more clubs or organizations, chiefly professional or 
business and social. 

The group has displayed an interest in and responsibility for the 


community and civic welfare through participation in a wide variety o 
activities such as organizations concerned with youth, health programs, 
civic betterment projects, and similar plans. Outstanding contributions 
along these lines have won recognition and special awards for a number 
of men and women. 

An inquiry regarding religious interests elicited the information 
that somewhat less than two-fifths of the men and more than one-half 
of the women feel moderately or strongly inclined toward religion ; how- 
ever, in the matter of religious affiliation, the men report a slightly 
higher proportion of church memberships. 



The General Information Blank of 1950 called for information on politi- 
cal affiliation, voting- habits, and a self-rating on radicalism-conserva- 
tism. Since similar information had been secured in the 1940 follow-up, 
it is possible both to picture the 1950 political and social attitudes and 
to compare the 1950 attitudes with those expressed in 1940, 36 to learn 
what changes may have occurred in the ten-year interval. 


The self-ratings on radicalism-conservatism (r-c ratings) employed 
a cross-on-line technique in which the rating bar represented a con- 
tinuum ranging from "extremely radical" at one end to "very conserva- 
tive" at the other. The responses were evaluated on a nine-point scale. 
The extreme left of the horizontal bar, defined as "extremely radical/* 
was coded 1 ; "tend to be radical/' 3 ; "average," 5 ; "tend to be conserva- 
tive," 7 ; and "very conservative," at the extreme right, 9. The inter- 
vening even numbers, 2 3 4 f 6, and 8, represented the midvalues between 
the adjacent categories. The directions were simple : "Rate yourself 
on the following scale as regards your political and social viewpoint/' 
Only rarely did a subject complain of ambiguity in the question, al- 
though an occasional respondent checked himself at one level on political 
and at another on social viewpoint. For all but a very few, the ratings 
presumably represented a composite of general attitude on political and 
social issues based, of course, on individual concepts of the term "po- 
litical and social viewpoint" and of what constitutes the "average" in 
this regard. 

A total of 1,241 subjects (698 men and 543 women) rated them- 
selves on this variable in 1950. The distributions of the r-c ratings with 
means and standard deviations are given in Table 46. 




Men Women 

Rating N % N % 


Extremely radical , 





Tend to be radical 


. .. 62 







Average , 

. . . 199 







Tend to be conservative. . , , 

, . . 206 

29 5 






Extremely conservative . . . 


... 17 








, . . 698 


Mean rating 

... 5.57 


Standard deviation 

,.. 1.54 


According to their own opinions, more than half the men and nearly 
three-fifths of the women consider themselves "middle-of-the-roaders" 
though the inclination is slightly to the right of center. The men tend 
to be more conservative than the women, with a mean rating of 5 . 5? 
as compared with a mean of 5 . 38 for women. The sex difference in 
mean ratings is fairly reliable (P = . 03) . The differences between men 
and women are found chiefly in the proportions at the average or near- 
average categories (ratings 4, 5 f 6) and at the conservative end of the 
scale (ratings 7, 8, 9). Somewhat more women than men rate them- 
selves average (59% versus 54%) and more men (36%) rate them- 
selves conservative than do women (30%). The proportions to the 
left of center are not very different for the sexes : 10% of men and 1 1 % 
of women rate themselves l t 2, or 3. 

There were 602 men and 494 women who rated themselves on radi- 
calism-conservatism in both 1940 and 1950. Table 47 compares the two 
sets of ratings made by the same subjects ten years apart. 


OF 1940 AND 1950 

Men Women 

_ . 1940 1950 1940 1950 

Ratings N % N % N % N % 

On radical side (1, 2, 3) 136 22.6 62 10.3 91 18.4 57 11.5 

Average or near average 

(4,5,6) 289 48.0 325 54.0 282 57.1 283 57.3 

On conservative side (7, 8, 9) 177 29.4 215 35.7 121 24.5 154 31.2 


Ratings at the radical end of the scale for these twice-rated people 
decreased from almost 23 percent to 10 percent for men and from 18 
percent to 11 percent for women between 1940 and 1950. The differ- 
ences in percentages at the two dates are statistically significant for 
both sexes (P = < .001). At the other end of the scale the conserva- 
tive ratings increased from 29 to 36 percent for men and from 24 
to 31 percent for women. Ratings at both extremes of the scale, how- 
ever, were less frequent in 1950. There were eight men and four women 
who ranked themselves at 1 the point farthest to the left in 1940, but 
no one checked this point in 1950. At the far right, 18 men checked 9, 
extremely conservative, in 1940 as compared with only 13 in 1950.* 
However, of seven women who rated themselves 9 in 1940 and eight 
who did so in 1950, only one was the same individual. Six of the eight 
had been at the *"tend-to-be-conservative" point in 1940 and one had 
rated herself at the far left in 1940 ! 

Even though the general trend between 1940 and 1950 was toward 
greater conservatism, there were shifts in both directions, and there 
were also a considerable number of persons whose position on the r-c 
scale remained unchanged. Identical ratings were given at both dates 
by 37 percent of men and 40 percent of women. Shifting to a more 
radical point on the scale were 19 percent of men and 21 percent of 
women, and shifting toward greater conservatism were 44 percent of 
men and 39 percent of women. The correlation between the self-ratings 
of 1940 and 1950 was . 62 for both men and women. 


It is interesting to examine the relationship between the political and 
social attitudes and certain other characteristics. A discussion of some 
of the variables associated with the r-c ratings follows. 

Age. That age is to some extent a factor in the trend toward con- 
servatism is shown in Table 48, which gives the mean r-c ratings accord- 
ing to the year of birth. The youngest group of men (those born in 
1915 or later) averaged reliably less conservative than those who were 
older, with a mean r-c rating of 5.18 for the youngest as compared 
with a mean of 5.62 for the total born before 1915. The three older 

* It should be remembered that the numbers referred to in this paragraph are 
for subjects in the twice-rated sample. Table 51 gives the total number of I and 9 
ratings in 1950. In 1940, of the total 667 men with r-c ratings, 11 gave themselves 
a rating of I and 21 considered themselves to be 9. Of the total 543 women with 
1940 ratings, four rated themselves I and nine rated themselves p. 


groups of men do not differ to any extent in mean r-c rating. The same 
tendency toward greater liberalism among those born in 1915 or later 
Is found for women but the difference is less marked than for men and 
Is not statistically significant. The mean r-c rating for the total group 
of women born before 1915 is 5 .41 compared with 5 . 16 for the young- 
est group. It is interesting to observe, however, that the 15 oldest 
women are far more conservative than any other group. 


Men Women. 

Mean r-c Mean r-c 

Year of Birth N rating S.D. N rating S.D. 

Before 1905 58 5.62 1.48 15 6.27 1.12 

1905-1909 228 5.61 1.59 177 5.39 1.45 

1910-1914 335 5.64 1.53 277 5.38 1.46 

1915 or later 77 5.18 1.38 74 5.16 1.39 

Education. Among both men and women, the most conservative 
are those who entered college but did not graduate. The college gradu- 
ates are nearer the center (the women more so than the men) and those 
who did not attend college at all fall between the other two educational 
groups. Within the college-graduate group the men show differences 
in r-c rating according to academic degree. The range in ratings is from 
a mean of 5 . 03 for the 68 men with a Ph.D. to 5 . 75 for the 81 LLJB/s, 
and for the total group of 280 men with a graduate degree the mean 
is 5.46. The mean r-c rating for men with a bachelor's degree only is 
5.72. For the 123 women with a graduate degree the mean r-c rating 
Is 4.95 in comparison with 5 . 54 for the women with only a bachelor's. 
Because the number of women involved was relatively small, the mean 
r-c ratings according to the various graduate degrees were not com- 
puted. Table 49 gives the r-c ratings according to educational level for 
both men and women. 



Men Women 

Mean r-c Mean r-c 

N rating SJX N rating S.D. 

1. College graduates. 504 5.51 1.54 383 5.30 1.41 

2. College 1 to 4 years 107 5.83 1.44 78 5.60 1.44 

3. No College 87 5.62 1.60 82 5.54 1.49 


Occupation. As might be expected, political and social viewpoint 
varies according to occupation. Men in the professions (Group I of the 
Minnesota Occupational Scale) have a mean r-c rating of 5 .40 as com- 
pared with 5.72 for Group II, the semiprofessiona! and managerial 
occupations. Men in Group III (clerical, retail business and skilled 
trades), with a mean of 5 .73, rated themselves almost exactly the same 
as those in the higher echelons of business (Group II). The most con- 
servative group were the 11 men in Group IV (agriculture and related 
occupations) whose mean r-c rating is 6.45. There are some marked 
differences within the occupational groups which are shown in Table 50 
where the rank order of 21 occupations from most liberal to most con- 
servative is given. 



(from most liberal to most conservative) 

Mean r-c 
Occupation N rating S.D. 

1. Personnel directors or welfare workers 11 4.27 

2. Authors or journalists 17 4.29 1.27 

3. Clergymen 7 4.43 

4. Economists or political scientists 7 4 .43 

5. Entertainment (directors, producers, writers) . 14 4.71 1.52 

6. College or university faculty 40 4,75 1 .39 

7. Teachers below college level 35 5 .08 1 .21 

8. Architects 8 5.38 

9. Accountants or statisticians , . 38 5 .47 1 .48 

10. Chemists or physicists.. 32 5.50 1.46 

11. In advertising, publicity, or public relations. , . 22 5.64 1.32 

12. In clerical, sales and retail business 34 5 . 65 1 . 80 

13. In skilled trades.. 25 5.68 1.30 

14. Physicians 41 5.73 1.15 

15. Executives in business and industry 59 5 .85 1 .24 

16. Lawyers 71 5.85 1.41 

17. Engineers 48 5.88 1.76 

18. Army or Navy officers 16 6.19 1.47 

19. Banking, finance, or insurance executives, 36 6.39 1.28 

20. Farmers and ranchers 11 6.45 

21. Sales managers, sales engineers, or technical 

salesmen 19 6.58 1.23 

* Occnpations in which fewer than seven men are engaged are not reported separately. 


Despite the fact that for three of the occupations in Table 50 the 
number of men rated is less than 10, the rank order of the occupations 
seems, in general, fairly plausible. Most persons would agree that men 
in occupations ranking 1 to 6 are usually more liberal in their political 
attitudes than men in occupations 18 to 21, or than those in positions 
11 to 17. Some may be surprised, however, that men in skilled trades 
should rank 13 in the list only two ranks less conservative than execu- 
tives in business or industry, and three ranks less conservative than 
lawyers ; or that farmers should rank as one of the four most conserva- 
tive groups. 

Too few women were employed to permit an analysis by particular 
occupation, but a comparison of broader vocational groupings reveals 
some interesting differences in r-c ratings. The most liberal group are 
the women in the miscellaneous professional occupations (see Table 
31 ), for whom the mean rating is 4 . 63. Women on college faculties and 
in the higher professions, and the school teachers are both slightly to the 
right with a mean rating of 5 . 17. The most conservative are the busi- 
ness women and office workers whose average r-c rating is 5 . 64. The 
housewives, who make up by far the largest group with a total of 339 
self-ratings, have a mean r-c rating of 5.50. Table 51 gives the r-c 
ratings for women by occupation. 



(from most liberal to most conservative) 

Mean r-c 
Occupation N rating: S.D. 

Miscellaneous professional occupations 54 4.63 1 .40 

College faculty and higher professions 29 5.17 1 . 70 

Schoolteachers (including administrators and 

counselors) 46 5 . 17 1 .46 

Housewives* 339 5.50 1.33 

Office, business, and clerical occupations 66 5 .64 1 . 51 

* Housewives who have full-time jobs outside the tome are included in the appropriate 
occupational category and do not appear here. 

Income. Surprisingly, there was little relationship between the 
1950 r-c ratings and earned income. For men the largest difference was 
between the 322 with earned incomes of $7,000 and above in 1949 and 
the 330 who earned less than $7,000. The former were the more con- 
servative with a mean rating of 5 . 72, while for the latter the mean was 


5.45. The difference between the r-c means is fairly reliable (P = .02). 
For women, the trend was reversed. The 21 women who earned $6,000 
or more were the most liberal of all the income groups by a slight but 
unreliable margin. When mean r-c ratings were checked against the 
total annual Income of husband and wife, whether earned or unearned, 
no significant relationship was found. However, both the gifted men 
and gifted women whose total family income was in the upper half 
(above $7,000) rated themselves slightly more conservative than those 
whose incomes fell below $7,000. 

Intelligence. One would like to know how the r-c variable is related 
to intelligence in the general population. Our data do not answer this 
question since our gifted subjects as adults score far above the generality 
of adults on the Concept Mastery test and were, by definition, in the top 
one percent of the generality in childhood IQ. However, despite the 
restricted intellectual range in our gifted group, Table 52 shows that 
radicalism (or liberalism) is positively associated with higher scores on 
the Concept Mastery test in 1950. Men who rated themselves as 1, 2, 
or 3 have a mean CMT score of 155 compared with a mean of 140* for 
men who rate themselves as 4 t 5 f or (5. The difference is highly reliable 
(P = .001). The corresponding drop in the CMT score for women, 
from a mean of 153.7 for those on the radical side to 132.7 for those 
in the center, is even more significant (P = .0001). Those who rated 
themselves as conservatives have the lowest CMT scores but the drop 
in mean score for ratings 7 } 8 3 or 9 as compared with ratings of 4, 5 f 
or 6 is not very reliable for either sex (P = . 09 for men and . 05 for 

Additional evidence of the tendency for those who score highest on 
intelligence tests to be less conservative is found in the data for the 
Stanford-Binet IQ's. Although the number of cases with IQ's of 170 
or over is too small to warrant conclusions, it is of interest to find that 
the 42 men with childhood IQ's of 170 and above who rated themselves 
on radicalism-conservatism in 1950 have a mean rating of 5.07 (S.D. 
1 .80) as against a mean of 5 . 57 for the total group of men. For the 31 
women whose Binet IQ's were 170 and above in childhood, the 1950 
mean r-c rating is 5 . 19 (S.D. 1 . 51 ) in comparison with a mean of 5 . 38 
for all gifted women. Although the subjects with the highest childhood 
IQ's are more liberal on the average than other members of the group, 

* These are "point" scores, not IQ's. 


they, too, grew more conservative In the Interval between 1940 and 
1950. The r-c mean in 1940 for this selected group of highest IQ was 
4,83 for men and 4.90 for women. 36 



Concept Mastery Scores 

Men Women 

Ratings N Mean S.D. N Mean S.D. 

On radical side (1,2,3) .......... 49 155.1 21.7 50 153.7 15.8 

Average or near average (4, 5, 6) 280 140.1 28.6 248 132.7 29.0 

On conservative side (7, 8 } 9) 179 135.3 29.0 116 126.8 25.9 

General adjustment. A comparison of the ratings on mental health 
and general adjustment* shows that those subjects classified as hav- 
ing some, or serious difficulty in adjustment rated themselves reli- 
ably more liberal on the average than those considered satisfactory in 
adjustment. Table 53 gives the mean r-c rating according to general 
adjustment classification. The differences in mean r-c rating between 
those rated satisfactory in general adjustment and those with some, 
or serious difficulty (categories 2 and 3) are statistically significant 
(P = < .001 for both sexes). 



Men Women 

Mean r-c Mean r-c 

General Adjustment N rating S.D. N rating S.D. 

1. Satisfactory 511 5.72 1 .49 375 5 .54 1 .34 

2. Some difficulty ...... 136 5.22 1.50 133 5.13 1.58 

3. Serious difficulty .... 51 5.20 1.76 35 4.60 1.63 

The tendency for the less well-adjusted to rate themselves as more 
liberal in political and social viewpoint was also found in 1940. At that 
time, however, these subjects were farther to the left with mean r-c 
ratings of 4. 61 and 4. 64 for men and women, respectively. 

It was pointed out in Chapter IV that the subjects who experience 
difficulty in emotional and social adjustment make reliably higher scores 
on the Concept Mastery test. As shown above, the subjects to the left 

* See Chapter IV for a description of these ratings. 


of center on the r-c scale also have significantly higher scores on the 
Concept Mastery test. Thus, we have a situation in which those more 
liberally inclined, socially and politically, make significantly higher test 
scores (Concept Mastery) and are also more often classified as having 
some, or serious difficulty in general adjustment. We might theorize 
that the higher Concept Mastery scores of the less well-adjusted may 
be due to their relative lack of social ability, their tendency toward more 
solitary interests, and consequent greater preoccupation with Intellec- 
tual pursuits. The corresponding tendency to liberal or radical attitudes 
found for the less well-adjusted may perhaps be explained by the lack 
of conformity that contributes to the adjustment difficulties. 

Although the differences disclosed In Tables 52 and 53 are statisti- 
cally reliable, care should be taken against overgeneralization. Actually 
the differences In mean r-c ratings according to general adjustment are 
much too small to justify the conclusion that conservatives are usually 
well-adjusted and that radicals usually are not. Nor in view of the small 
number of cases at the radical end of the scale can it be concluded that 
those who rate themselves left of center are more intelligent, as meas- 
ured by test scores, than the conservative members of the group. 

In Interpreting the data on political and social attitudes, particularly 
with reference to radicalism-conservatism, It should be borne In mind 
that these opinions were expressed chiefly in 1950 and 1951. If a similar 
opinion survey of the group were made now, the results might be differ- 
ent, not alone because of the Influence of age, but because of the changes 
in the political and economic scene and In the concept of what consti- 
tutes radicalism or conservatism. 


Information on political preferences was supplied by approximately 
1,250 subjects in response to the question : On national issues which of 
the political parties most nearly represents your leanings? (Check) 

Democrat Republican Socialist Communist Other 

(Specify) . Somewhat more than one-half (55%) of the men and 

one-half of the women said they were Republicans. One-third of the 
men and two-fifths of the women said they were Democrats and 2.6 
percent of each sex identified themselves as Socialists. No one claimed 
membership In the Communist party. Not aligned regularly with any 
of the major parties were 7.8 percent of men and 6 percent of women. 
Most of the latter described themselves as "Independent" and not fitting 


a party pattern, though a few said "None." Slightly more than one per- 
cent of each sex mentioned a minor party, usually the Independent Pro- 
gressive Party or other liberal group. 

In the 1940-50 decade the political affiliations showed the same 
trend toward greater conservatism as had been shown by the r-c ratings. 
About 10 percent more men and 8 percent more women called them- 
selves Republican in 1950 than in 1940. The number of Democrats 
among men decreased from 40 percent in 1940 to the 33 percent of 1950 
while the proportion of women under the Democratic banner changed 
hardly at all. The Socialists in each sex decreased from approximately 
4 percent in 1940 to 2.6 percent in 1950. At the earlier date a larger 
proportion (10 percent of men and 12 percent of women) were in the 
"None" or "Independent" category. 

A comparison of party affiliation with r-c self-rating shows the 
Democrats, both men and women, to be reliably more liberal in politi- 
cal and social viewpoint than were the Republicans. The Democrats, 
though slightly left of center, were much closer to the middle than were 
the Republicans. Among men, the Democrats with a mean r-c rating 
of about 4.51 were only a half-step from the middle point on the scale, 
while the Republicans who averaged 6.48 were nearly one and one-half 
steps to the right of center. The women showed the same trend though 
the contrast was not quite so marked: Democrats averaged 4.60 on 
the r-c scale and Republicans 6.25. Those with no affiliation were only 
slightly to the left of center with a mean 4.91 for men and 4.88 for 
women. Table 54 gives the percentage distribution of political party 
preferences and includes also the mean self -rating on radicalism-con- 
servatism according to political preference. 



Men Women 

Mean r-c Mean r-c 

Political Party N % rating N % rating 

Republican 387 55.1 6.48* 268 49.5 6.25* 

Democrat 233 33.1 4.51 219 40.5 4.60 

Socialist 18 2.6 3.47 14 2.6 3.07 

Other 10 1.4 2.88 7 1.3 3.57 

No affiliation 55 7.8 4.91 33 6.1 4.88 

* The critical ratio of the difference in mean r-c rating between Republicans and Democrats 
is 21 .9 for men and 16.5 for women. 



The General Information Blank of 1950, like that of 1940, asked for 
the voting habits of the subjects with respect to national, state, and 
local elections. Replies to this item were received from 690 men and 
531 women. The responses classified in Table 55 show that those 
voting "always" or "usually" include approximately 94 percent of men 
and 98 percent of women in national elections, 90 percent of men and 
95 percent of women in state elections, 85 percent of men and 91 percent 
of women in local elections. These percentages are enormously higher 
than those reported for the general population, about 60 percent of 
whom vote in national elections. The percentages of gifted subjects 
voting "usually" or "always" was about the same in 1950 as it had been 
in 1940. One can only conclude that these gifted people as a rule take 
their civic obligations much more seriously than is true of the general 


Percentage Voting 

National Elections 

State Elections 

Local Elections 

Men Women 

Men Women 

Men Women 


... 82.0 89.4 

70.2 75.1 

49.2 58.7 


12 8.7 

20.4 20.0 

36.2 32 6 

Occasionally .... 

1.9 2 

3.2 1.9 

6.5 4 5 

Rarelv or never 

... 4.1 1.7 

6.2 3.0 

8.1 4.2 


Several men in our group have sought public office, some success- 
fully, some not. Among the elective offices held are two superior court 
judgeships (one of these men has since been appointed to the appellate 
court), one municipal court judgeship, two members of the state legis- 
lature and one high state official whose name has been mentioned as a 
possible United States senator. Another was defeated in a campaign 
for superior court judge, two have been unsuccessful candidates for the 
State Assembly and one man was defeated in his candidacy for the 
United States House of Representatives. Membership on the state 
central committee of either the Democratic or Republican party has been 
reported by several men and still others have served on county central 
committees of the major political parties. Altogether, a number of sub- 
jects, both men and women, have engaged in political campaigns as com- 
mittee members, speakers, precinct workers, and other activities. 


Others have held appointive offices, both federal and state. Among 
these are two lawyers who are judicial referees in state agencies. Still 
others have held important administrative positions in agencies of the 
federal government. One of the most important appointive positions 
was held by a young man who, while still under 33 years of age, was 
made an administrative assistant to the President of the United States 
and served as a member of the White House executive staff for nearly 
seven years. He won a Rockefeller Public Service Award for outstand- 
ing service in government. 

Our records are not complete on the extent of participation of the 
group in political affairs, since no specific information on that type of 
activity has been sought since the 1950-52 follow-up. Appointment or 
election to public office was reported in the 1955 mailed questionnaire 
but minor activities were not called for and, therefore, were seldom 
mentioned. Because of the Incomplete nature of the present data and 
because of the relative youth of the subjects, a record of greater partici- 
pation In public life and more political activity can be looked for in future 


The men and women of the gifted group at mid-life consider them- 
selves close to the center on a radicalism-conservatism continuum. Both 
sexes are slightly to the right of the mid-point on the nine-point scale 
on which they rated themselves. In political affiliation, somewhat more 
than half of the men and about half of the women are Republicans. The 
group as a whole has a remarkable voting record, as shown by the better 
than 90 percent who report that they "usually" or "always" vote In 
state and national elections. 

A comparison of the self-ratings on radicalism-conservatism made 
in 1950 with those made in 1940 shows a shift in the direction of less 
radicalism and greater conservatism. Although the increase in propor- 
tion at the more conservative end of the scale from 1940 to 1950 was 
statistically reliable, it should not be overlooked that about one-fifth of 
the group had moved closer to the liberal end of the political spectrum 
in 1950. The changes in political affiliation from 1940 to 1950 are in 
the same direction as the r-c ratings ; that is, in 1950 more labeled them- 
selves as Republicans and fewer as Democrats than in 1940, 

Several members of the group have held important elective offices 


and several others have been appointed to responsible positions in both 
state and federal government. Since the group is still relatively young, 
greater participation in political life and government can be expected. 
An examination of the political and social attitudes in the light of 
certain other variables reveals a relationship between r-c ratings and 
age, extent of education, and certain occupations. There is also a 
tendency for ratings of 1, 2, 3 on the r-c scale (tend to be radical) to 
be associated with higher Concept Mastery test scores as well as with 
poorer general social and emotional adjustment. 



Marriage and marital adjustment are important factors in a portrayal 
of anyone's life success and happiness. How do our gifted subjects com- 
pare in these respects with the generality of men and women of corre- 
sponding age? 

Consider first the incidence of marriage to 1955 when the average 
age of the subjects was approximately 44 years. By that time 93 percent 
of the men and almost 90 percent of the women had married. These 
percentages are based on the 780 men and the 610 women living in 1955 
for whom information on marital status was available. The incidence 
of marriage for both sexes is about the same as that reported for the 
total population of corresponding age. In other words, being highly 
intelligent apparently is not an obstacle to marriage for either sex, at 
least that is true for this group. Table 56 gives the proportion at speci- 
fied age levels who have ever been married regardless of current marital 
status. The average age at marriage (first marriage if more than one) 
was 25 years for men and 23 years for women. Twenty-three men (3 % ) 
married before reaching age 21 and 9 of these w r ere 18 when married. 
The number of women married before age 21 was 71 (12%) and of 
these 19 were married at ages 16 to 18. On the other hand, six men and 
nine women did not marry until after age 40. Among the men, 45 has 
been the oldest age at first marriage, and for women it was 51 years. 


N* Percentage Who Have Married 

Age Men Women Men Women 

Under 40 83 74 96.4 93.2 

40-44 361 316 91.7 90.5 

45-49 262 200 93.5 87.5 

50 and over 74 20 93.2 80.0 

Ages combined 780 610 93.0 89.5 

* The N*s here do not include 4 men and 2 women for whom information on 1955 marital 
status was not obtained; nor do they include the 11 men and 17 women lost since 1928 or earlier. 



A comparison of the Incidence of marriage among the men college 
graduates of our group with that reported for the generality of men 
graduates indicates that the marriage rate is about the same for both. 
Our women graduates, however, are more likely to marry than are 
the generality of college women : 86 percent of the gifted women grad- 
uates (all ages) have married as compared with 74 percent of college 
women in general in the 40-49-year age bracket and 65 percent of those 
age 50 and over. 17 The women college graduates, although they are less 
likely to remain spinsters than are college women in general, have a 
somewhat lower marriage rate than that of the noncollege women in 
our group. Table 57 gives the proportion of gifted men and women at 
three educational levels who have married. 




Men Women 

Are, or have Are, or nave 

Education Single been married Single been married 

College graduates 7.6 92.4 13.8 86.2 

College 1 to 4 years 6.4 93.6 4.9 95.1 

No college 5.0 95.0 2.1 97.9 

Slightly more than one-fifth of those who married have a history 
of divorce. There are 150 men and 121 women who have been divorced 
one or more times. These figures represent 21 percent of the men and 
22 percent of women who have married. Of these, 32 men (4.1%) and 
29 women (4.7%) have been divorced two or more times, and 6 men 
and 13 women have been divorced three or more times. It is impossible 
to say how the divorce rate in the gifted group compares with that for 
the generality of corresponding age since the census data report only 
current marital status. However, recent estimates of the proportion 
of marital failures among the general population of the United States 
place the figure at one-fourth to one-third of the marriages formed. 9 
According to the figures for our gifted group the divorce rate to 1955 
is somewhat less than that for the generality. However, it is still too 
soon to say how the ultimate divorce rate will compare with that of the 
total population since additional divorces can be expected among our 

Divorce is negatively associated with extent of schooling. Those 


subjects who graduated from college have a far lower divorce rate than 
do the nongraduates. Of the college graduates who married, only 16 
percent have a history of divorce while 32 percent of those who attended 
college one or more years without graduating and 36 percent of those 
who did not enter college have a record of one or more marital failures. 
The trend toward a lower divorce rate for those who completed college 
agrees with data reported by other investigators for college graduate 
populations. In a questionnaire survey made in 1950 of the Harvard 
class of 1926, in which replies were received from 61 percent, the figures 
indicated that 13 percent of those who had married had been divorced 
one or more times. 14 An investigation made by Havemann and West 17 
of the total U.S. college graduate population showed the proportion 
divorced at the time of the survey to be 6 percent. However, the latter 
inquiry did not include a record of marital history and because of the 
known tendency of college graduates to remarry soon after divorce, 
this estimate is undoubtedly too low. Table 58 shows, separately for 
men and women, according to educational level the proportion who 
(1) are single, (2) are married (no divorce), and (3) have been 
divorced one or more times (may currently be married). 


College College 1 to 


4 Years No College Total Group 

Men Women 

(N = (N = 
Marital Status 555) 413) 

Single 7.6 13.8 

Men Women Men Women Men Women 
(N = (N = (N = (N = (N = (N = 
125) 101) 100) 96) 780) 610) 

6.4 4.9 5.0 2.1 7.0 10.5 

Married, no divorce 77.8 72.4 
Divorced 1 or more 
times 14.6 13.8 

60.8 70.3 67.0 57.3 73.7 69.7 
32.8 24.8 28.0 40.6 19.3 19.8 

% of N ever married 
who have been di- 
vorced 15.8 16 

35 26 29 5 41 6 20 7 22 1 

Among men, the divorce rate is highest for those who attended col- 
lege one or more years without graduating, and for women the propor- 
tion of divorces is greatest for those who did not enter college. One 
might speculate that greater restlessness, discontent, or frustration are 
felt by the gifted persons who do not complete college and that this may 
bring about greater instability in personal relationships. 


The data for women support this theory, at least to the extent that 
general adjustment ratings are related to both education and divorce. 
Those women who either did not complete or did not enter college are 
less often rated satisfactory in mental health and general adjustment. 
The proportion rated satisfactory at each of these two educational levels 
is 58 percent, compared with 69 percent of the college graduates. In 
the case of men the relationship of education to general adjustment 
rating is quite different. The college graduates and those with one to 
four years of college have almost exactly the same proportion of satis- 
factory ratings, 69 and 68 percent, respectively. But the highest pro- 
portion of satisfactory ratings (73%) is found for the men who did not 
enter college ! As would be expected, those persons with a history of 
divorce are much less likely to be rated satisfactory in general adjust- 
ment. The proportion of men rated satisfactory is 75 percent for the 
unbroken marriages and 57 percent for those with a divorce history. 
The difference is even more marked for women with 71 percent of 
persons with unbroken marriages rated satisfactory as against 46 per- 
cent of those with a record of divorce. 

Neither marriage nor divorce rate in this group is correlated with 
childhood IQ for either men or women. The adult Concept Mastery 
test scores show practically no difference between the married with no 
divorce record and those with a history of divorce. The highest CMT 
scores, however, were made by the single men and the single women ! 
The 34 single men scored about 17 points higher, on the average, than 
those who had married (with or without divorce) . The difference was 
somewhat less in the case of women, with the single women averaging 
a little over 8 points higher than those who had married. 

If the divorce rate in our group as a whole is high, so also is the 
rate of remarriage. Of the 150 men who have been divorced, 86 percent 
remarried at least once. Of the 121 women with a history of divorce, 
slightly more than two-thirds remarried. When the gifted subjects 
divorce and remarry they tend to make happy remarriages. In 1950, 
the subjects were given a shortened form of the 1940 test of marital 
happiness which has been reported in detail in earlier publications. 36 ' 38 
In the 1950 test the maximum happiness score was 44 points. For both 
men and women there is virtually no difference in the happiness score 
between those whose first marriage was intact and those with a history 
of divorce(s) and remarriage (s). The mean scores by marital history 
of currently married men and women follow : 


Men Women 

(N = 515) (N = 393) 

Divorced, Divorced, 

Married, remarried Married, remarried 

no 1 or more no 1 or more 

divorce times divorce times 

Mean Happiness Score 23.7 25.6 25.5 25.4 

S.D 9.7 8.8 9.8 10.3 

Other data collected in the 1950-52 field follow-up throw additional 
light on the marriages and marital happiness of the gifted. For example, 
the questionnaire, The Happiness of Your Marriage, included the item 
How happy has your marriage "been? The subjects and their spouses 
were asked to check the appropriate description from a list of seven re- 
sponse choices. The percentage distribution of responses for the gifted 
and spouses who replied were as follows : 


Wives of of 

Gifted Gifted Gifted Gifted 

Men Men Women Women 

(N = 515) (N = 327) (N = 393) (N = 242) 

% % % % 

Extraordinarily happy 26 . 8 35.8 27 . 7 33.9 

Decidedly more happy than 

average 42.1 33.6 46.1 40.5 

Somewhat more happy than 

average 14.2 17.4 12.7 11.6 

Average 10.7 9.5 7.6 7.8 

Somewhat less happy than 

average 3.1 2.8 2.3 2.5 

Decidedly less happy than av- 
erage 2.9 0.6 2.6 2.9 

Extremely unhappy .... 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.8 

Various studies 19 of marital happiness for the population in general 
indicate that about 65 percent of married couples are happy or very 
happy, about 20 percent just get along (probably equivalent to our 
rating of average), and about 15 percent are more or less unhappy. In 
contrast to these figures, better than 85 percent of our subjects and their 
spouses rate their marriage above average in happiness and only about 
6 percent say they are less happy than average (actually only 3.7% 
of wives of gifted men say they are more or less unhappy). Further- 
more, according to the subjects' Supplementary Biographical Data 
blank 73 percent of gifted men and 70 percent of gifted women consider 
their marriage to be an aspect of life from which the greatest satisfaction 
is derived. 

A discussion of marriage in the gifted group would not be complete 


without a description of the men and women they marry. (In the matter 
of age, the gifted subjects follow the general pattern in our culture by 
choosing wives who are younger and husbands who are older than them- 
selves. The gifted men tend to marry women about two and one-half 
years younger while the gifted women as a rule choose husbands about 
three and one-half years older. These, however, are only the averages 
and there were many exceptions. For example, 8 . 6 percent of the gifted 
men chose wives who were two or more years older, including four men 
whose wives were from 8 to 12 years older. On the other hand, 6 per- 
cent of gifted men married women 10 or more years younger than 
themselves, and in one instance the gifted husband (his second mar- 
riage) was 22 years older than his wife. As for the gifted women, close 
to 10 percent married men who were two to ten years younger, while 
seven women chose husbands from 20 to 26 years older than themselves. 
Investigations agree in showing education to be an important factor 
in marital selection, so it is not surprising to find that many of our gifted 
subjects have married college graduates. More than one-half of the hus- 
bands and more than two-fifths of the wives graduated from college. 
The proportion of college graduates who have taken degrees beyond the 
bachelor's is 24 percent of husbands and 10 percent of wives. For the 
514 husbands and 684 wives for whom adequate information on educa- 
tion was available, the percentages with varying amounts of schooling 
are as follows : 

Husbands Wives 

% % 

College graduation 55.6 42.4 

College 1 to 4 years (no degree) 18.7 26.5 

High-school graduation 19.9 27.3 

High school 1 to 3 years 3.7 2.5 

No formal schooling beyond eighth grade , . 2.1 1 .3 

As might be expected in view of their superior education, a large 
proportion of the husbands are in Group I (professional) and Group II 
(serniprofessiona! and higher business occupations) when classified ac- 
cording to the Minnesota Occupational Scale described in Chapter VII. 
Table 59 gives the percentage distribution by occupational group for 
the husbands of gifted women. On the distaff side considerably fewer 
of the wives of gifted men are gainfully employed than are the married 
gifted women. Whether this Is a reflection of the superior economic 
status of the gifted men or of the greater desire on the part of the gifted 
women for a career outside the home Is a matter for speculation. In any 


case, only 15.5 percent of the wives of gifted men are employed as com- 
pared with 29 percent of the married gifted women. Of the employed 
wives, 11 percent are in college teaching, research, or the higher pro- 
fessions, 23 percent are in schoolteaching or administration (below 
college level), and 22 percent are in other professional occupations. 
About 39 percent are in business and office work, and slightly more 
than 5 percent are in miscellaneous occupations (e.g., telephone opera- 
tor, hairdresser, et cetera). 



of Husbands 

of Gifted 


Occupational Group (N = 487) 

I. Professional 34.9 

II. Managerial, official, and semiprofessional 39. 

III. Retail business, clerical, skilled crafts, and kindred. .. 18.7 

IV. Agriculture and related occupations 4.3 

V. Semiskilled 3.1 

Evidence of the generally superior intellectual caliber of the spouses 
is found in the Concept Mastery test scores. In the field fallow-up of 
1950-52 the Concept Mastery test, Form T, was given to 690 spouses 
including 273 husbands and 417 wives. The mean CMT score for the 
spouses was 95.3 and the standard deviation, 42.7. Although their 
average score is close to one S.D. lower than the mean score of the gifted 
subjects, about one-fifth scored above the average for the gifted group. 
The spouses appear to good advantage when compared to various other 
groups tested on the CMT. The data for these comparisons are given 
in Tables 15 and 17 of Chapter V. The mean CMT score of 115 found 
for the total college graduate group among the spouses is higher than 
the average of such college graduate populations as the Electronic Engi- 
neers and Scientists (Mean score = 94), the applicants to the graduate 
Public Health Education curriculum (Mean score = 97), and the 75 
miscellaneous college graduates (Mean score = 112). For those 
spouses who have taken graduate degrees, the mean CMT scores range 
from 149 for those with a Ph.D. to 131 for those with a master's or 
equivalent degree. In contrast, two groups of advanced graduate stu- 
dents at a leading university made average scores on the CMT of 118 
and 119, respectively. The spouses who entered but did not complete 
college score above the college graduates in the Air Force group (means 
of 85 and 73, respectively). Moreover, the spouses who did not go be- 


yond high school averaged slightly higher on the CMT than did the 
total Air Force group, both graduates and nongraduates. 

Since in the original survey of 1921-22 the majority of the subjects 
were chosen from fairly limited geographical areas (chiefly the San 
Francisco Bay cities and the Los Angeles metropolitan district), some 
intermarriages among them could be expected. Actually, in ten In- 
stances a gifted subject has married a member of the group; however, 
three of these marriages terminated in divorce. In two cases, the mar- 
riage was very brief and there were no children ; the third couple were 
married for 12 years and had two children before being divorced. Among 
the seven unbroken marriages one couple has 4 children, two couples 
have 2 children each, one has 1 child, and three couples are childless. 


By 1955 the gifted group had produced approximately 2,500 chil- 
dren. This number includes both living and deceased off spring and also 
takes into account the children of those subjects who had died or whose 
marriages had been terminated by divorce or death of the spouse. Fig- 
ured on this basis, the average number of children for all subjects who 
had ever been married was 1 .9. 

The typical family with children has 2.4 children. The gifted men 
have slightly larger families with 2.5 children as compared with 2.3 
for the gifted women. The two largest families, however, are those of 
gifted women, one of whom has 8 children and the other 7. There are 
also six gifted women and three gifted men who have families of 6 chil- 
dren. At the other extreme, among those who have married, 23 percent 
of the women and 16 percent of the men have no children. Table 60 
gives the percentage distribution of family size for all subjects who 
have ever been married. 

The sex ratio among the offspring is 107.8 boys to 100 girls. This 
represents a slightly greater excess of boys than that reported for the 




Gifted Gifted 

Number of Children Per Family Men Women Total 

5 or more 3,1 2.8 3.0 

4 9.7 6.4 8.3 

3... 19.6 17.5 18.7 

2 , 33.8 30.9 32.5 

1 17.6 18.9 18.2 

None 16.2 23.4 19.3 


total U.S. white population. Dublin gives the sex ratio for the generality 
as 106 boys born to every 100 girls. 10 Among the offspring are 36 pairs 
of twins, including one family with three sets and another family with 
two sets. This is 1 . 5 percent of the births, which is a slightly greater 
frequency of twins than that given for the United States as a whole, 
where during the years 1941-47 there was one set of twins for every 95 
births (1. 05 %). 10 

Of the 2,452 offspring born to 1955, a total of 84 (3 . 5%) have died 
and an additional 15 stillbirths have been reported. More than half 
(56%) of the deaths occurred in the first year of life. Those children 
who survived the first year died from a number of causes, of which 
accidents were the most frequent with 11 deaths, and leukemia second 
with 5 deaths. Age at death ranged from a few hours after birth to 28 
years, but all except 7 deaths took place before age 5. Two children 
died of brain tumor at ages 12 and 14, respectively; 3 were accidentally 
killed (automobile) at ages 11, 12, and 28 ; one died of a heart condition 
at 8 years ; and one of bulbar poliomyelitis at 19 years of age. 

It is too early to predict the ultimate fertility rate of the gifted group. 
At the time of last report nearly two-thirds of the gifted women who 
had married were under 45 years of age. Ten percent were in the 35-to- 
39-year age bracket and 2 percent were under 35 years of age. The wives 
of the gifted men were younger, with 71 percent under 45 years of age. 
About one-fourth of the wives were age 35 to 39 years, and 9 percent 
were under age 35. Whether the present birth rate of 2 . 4 children per 
mother will increase sufficiently to equal the 2.8 children per mother 
required to maintain the stock remains to be seen. 10 However, in view 
of the number of child-bearing years remaining to both the gifted 
women and the wives of the gifted men, a considerable increase in the 
number of children can be expected. 

A comparison of family size with extent of education shows a tend- 
ency for the college graduates among the gifted subjects to have some- 
what larger families, with the differences according to education being 
greater for men than for women. The following percentages illustrate 
the differences in family size at three levels of educational attainment : 

No Children 3 or More Children 

Gifted Gifted Gifted Gifted 

Men Women Men Women 

% % % % 

College graduates 14.0 23.0 36.9 28.9 

College 1 to 4 years 17.3 21.8 19.2 28.7 

No college 19.0 21.7 29.8 21.7 


The larger families of the college graduates may be a reflection of 
their superior economic status. Our data show that those subjects with 
the larger families have somewhat greater total family incomes. The 
median total family income in 1954 of couples with no children was 
$10,462 in comparison with $11,688 for those with 3 or more children. 
Of the subjects with total family incomes of $25,000 and above, 52 per- 
cent had 3 or more children while only about 29 percent of those with 
incomes below $10,000 had as many as 3 children. However, the rela- 
tionships are only suggestive and should be interpreted with caution 
since age also is related both to income and to size of family. 

In the field follow-up investigations of 1939-40 and 1951-52 the 
field workers gave Stanf ord-Binet tests to all of the offspring of suitable 
age who could be reached. In addition, a number of subjects who live 
at a distance have, over the years, brought their children to Stanford 
University for testing.* Altogether we have tested a total of 1,525 off- 
spring, 786 boys and 739 girls. The distributions of IQ's with means 
and S.D/s are given in Table 61. 



Binet IQ Boys Girls Total 

190-199 1 1 2 

180-189 37m 

170-179 15 9 24 

160-169 22 33 55 

150-159 82 66 148 

140-149 .... 137 125 262 

130-139 188 180 368 

120-129 181 168 349 

110-119 86 83 169 

100-109 53 48 101 

90-99 13 11 24 

80-89 426 

70-79 1 6 7 

Total 786 739 1,525 

MeaaScore 132.7 132.7 132.7 

S.D 17.2 18.0 17.6 

The mean IQ was exactly the same for boys and girls, namely, 
132.7 and the S.D. 5 s differed only slightly in the direction of greater 

* As pointed out earlier, the subjects who live outside California and could not 
be seen by a field worker have been encouraged to call at the research headquarters 
for a personal interview whenever they might be visiting in the area. 


variability among girls. Approximately one-third of the offspring tested 
at IQ 140 and above while about 2 percent had IQ's below 100. An 
additional 13 offspring (7 boys and 6 girls) to whom we did not give 
the Stanford-Binet were known to be mentally defective. Of these, 4 
have died, 6 are in schools or institutions for the mentally retarded, and 
3 are being cared for at home. Of the total 2,452 offspring, the 13 men- 
tally defective constitute only one-half of one percent, and of the 1,525 
offspring whose intellectual status has been determined, they represent 
only 0.8 percent. In the generality the proportion of the mentally de- 
fective (defined as below IQ 70) is very much greater. Of the nearly 
3,000 subjects on whom the 1937 revision of the Stanford-Binet test 
was standardized, 2 . 6 percent tested below 70. This percentage, how- 
ever, does not fully represent the incidence of the lower levels of mental 
ability in the generality age 2 to 18 years since the extreme cases of 
mental deficiency are not found in the regular school classes. 28 

Some 50 gifted subjects have adopted children. One family has 
taken four children for adoption ; one has adopted 3, and several have 
2 adopted children. Although it would have been interesting to have 
given intelligence tests to all the adopted children, limitations of time 
and funds made it impractical. However, 18 of these children have been 
tested and found to have Binet IQ's ranging from about 100 to 146 with 
6 of the adopted children testing at IQ 135 or higher. 

Although at the present writing a large proportion of our subjects 
are still under 45 years of age, more than 50 have already reached grand- 
parent status with a total of 115 grandchildren so far reported. One of 
our gifted women who herself had 5 children is the grandmother of 11 
at age 52. 


In the past 35 years we have watched the gifted child advance through 
adolescence and youth into young manhood and womanhood and on 
into the fuller maturity of mid-life. The follow-up for three and one- 
half decades has shown that the superior child, with few exceptions, be- 
comes the able adult, superior in nearly every aspect to the generality. 
But, as in childhood, this superiority is not equally great in all areas. 

The superiority of the group is greatest in intellectual ability, in 
scholastic accomplishment, and in vocational achievements. Physically 
the gifted subjects continue to be above average as shown in their lower 
mortality record and in the health ratings. While personal adjustment 
and emotional stability are more difficult to evaluate, the indications are 
that the group does not differ greatly from the generality in the extent 
of personality and adjustment problems as shown by mental break- 
downs, suicide, and marital failures. The incidence of such other prob- 
lems as excessive use of liquor (alcoholism) and homosexuality is below 
that found in the total population, and the delinquency rate is but a small 
fraction of that in the generality. Clearly, desirable traits tend to go 
together. No negative correlations were found between intelligence and 
size, strength, physical well-being, or emotional stability. Rather, where 
correlations occur, they tend to be positive. 


But if gifted children are not prone to die young or, as they advance 
in years, to become invalids or to suffer to any extent from serious 
personality or behavior difficulties, there remains the question of the 
degree to which their intellectual superiority is maintained. The evi- 
dence on this score is conclusive. Test scores of 1927-28, 1939-40, and 
1950-52 showed the majority of the subjects close to the 99th percentile 
of the generality in mental ability. This is true even of those whose 
careers have not been particularly notable. It was especially interesting 
to find that the average Concept Mastery test score in 1950-52 of the 



subjects who did not go beyond high school was exactly the same as 
that of a group of candidates for advanced degrees (Ph.D. or M.D.) 
at a leading university. Of additional interest are the results of a com- 
parison of Concept Mastery test scores of 1939-40 and 1950-52 of the 
same individuals. The test-retest comparisons showed a reliable gain 
in the 11-to-l 2-year interval with increases occurring at all educational 
and occupational levels, in all grades of ability, and at all ages. The data 
indicate that not only do the mentally superior hold their own but that 
they actually increase in intellectual stature as measured by the Concept 
Mastery test. 


From a practical and utilitarian point of view the real test of the 
significance and value of this high degree of mental ability is the use 
that is made of such gifts. The record points to the conclusion that 
capacity to achieve far beyond the average can be detected early in life 
through tests of general intelligence. Such tests do not, however, enable 
us to predict what direction the achievement will take, and least of all 
do they tell us what personality factors or what accidents of fortune will 
affect the fruition of exceptional ability. The appraisal of achievement 
of our gifted subjects will be concerned with their educational attain- 
ments, their vocational records, their contributions to knowledge and 
culture, and the recognitions that have been won. 

The educational record is a distinguished one. More than 85 percent 
of the group entered college and almost 70 percent graduated. The latter 
figure is about ten times as high as for a random group of comparable 
age. Graduation honors and elections to Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi 
were at least three times as numerous as in the typical senior college 
class, with better than 35 percent of the graduates winning one or more 
of these distinctions. Of the college graduates, two-thirds of the men 
and nearly three-fifths of the women continued for graduate study. The 
PhD. or comparable doctorate was taken by 80 men and 17 women, 
or about 14 percent of men and 4 percent of women graduates. The 
proportion of the generality of college graduates of corresponding age 
who have taken a doctorate is less than 3 percent. 

The occupations and occupational status of the men and women of 
the gifted group have been evaluated separately since the pattern in this 
regard has been so different. The careers of women are often deter- 
mined by extraneous circumstances rather than by training, talent, or 


vocational interest. Whether women choose to work and the occupa- 
tions they enter are influenced both by their own attitudes and by the 
attitudes of society toward the role of women. These attitudinal factors 
also influence the opportunities for employment and for advancement. 
But in spite of the fact that American women on the average occupy 
positions of lesser responsibility, opportunity, and remuneration than 
do men, the gifted women have a number of notable achievements to 
their credit, some of which have been described in Chapter VII. That 
7 women should be listed in American Men oj Science, 5 2 in the Direc- 
tory of American Scholars,* and 2 in Who's Who in America, 42 all be- 
fore reaching the age of 43, is certainly many times the expectation from 
a random group of around 700 women. Publications of the gifted 
women include 5 novels ; 5 volumes of poetry and some 70 poems that 
have appeared in both literary and popular journals ; 32 technical, pro- 
fessional, or scholarly books ; around 50 short stories ; 4 plays ; more 
than 150 essays, critiques, and articles; and more than 200 scientific 
papers. At least 5 patents have been taken out by gifted women. These 
figures do not include the writings of reporters and editors, nor a va- 
riety of miscellaneous contributions. 

Our gifted women in the main, however, are housewives, and many 
who also work outside the home do so more to relieve the monotony 
of household duties or to supplement the family income rather than 
through a desire for a serious career. There are many intangible kinds 
of accomplishment and success open to the housewife, and it is debatable 
whether the fact that a majority of gifted women prefer housewifery 
to more intellectual pursuits represents a net waste of brainpower. Al- 
though it is possible by means of rating scales to measure with fair accu- 
racy the achievement of a scientist or a professional or business man, 
no one has yet devised a way to measure the contribution of a woman 
who makes her marriage a success, inspires her husband, and sends 
forth well-trained children into the world. 

As for the men, close to three and a half decades after their selection 
solely on the ability to score in the top one percent of the school popu- 
lation in an intelligence test, we find 86 percent in the two highest 
occupational categories : I, the professions, and II, the semiprof essions 
and higher business. Eleven percent are in smaller retail business, cleri- 
cal, and skilled occupations. Farming and related occupations account 
for nearly 2 percent and the remaining 1 percent are in semiskilled work. 
The representation in the two highest groups is many times their pro- 


portionate share, with a corresponding shortage of gifted representation 
in the middle occupational levels. No gifted men are classified in the 
lowest levels of the occupational hierarchy (service workers and slightly 
skilled or unskilled laborers), whereas 13 percent of the total urban 
population are in these categories. 

A number of men have made substantial contributions to the physi- 
cal, biological, and social sciences. These include members of university 
faculties as well as scientists in various fields who are engaged in re- 
search either in industry or in privately endowed or government-spon- 
sored research laboratories.* Listings in American Men of Science 5 
include 70 gifted men, of whom 39 are in the physical sciences, 22 in 
the biological sciences, and 9 in the social sciences. These listings are 
several times as numerous as would be found for unselected college 
graduates. An even greater distinction has been won by the three men 
who have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, one of 
the highest honors accorded American scientists. Not all the notable 
achievements have been in the sciences ; many examples of distinguished 
accomplishment are found in nearly all fields of endeavor. 

Some idea of the distinction and versatility of the group may be 
found in biographical listings. In addition to the 70 men listed in 
American Men of Science, 10 others appear in the Directory of Ameri- 
can Scholars, a companion volume of biographies of persons with no- 
table accomplishment in the humanities. 6 In both of these volumes, 
listings depend on the amount of attention the individual's work has 
attracted from others in his field. Listings in Who's Who in America?* 
on the other hand, are of persons who, by reasons of outstanding 
achievement, are subjects of extensive and general interest. The 31 men 
(about 4%) who appear in Who's Who provide striking evidence of 
the range, of talent to be found in this group. Of these, 13 are members 
of college faculties representing the sciences, arts and humanities ; 8 are 
top-ranking executives in business or industry; and 3 are diplomats. 
The others in Who's Who include a physicist who heads one of the fore- 
most laboratories for research in nuclear energy ; an engineer who is 
a director of research in an aeronautical laboratory ; a landscape archi- 
tect ; and a writer and editor. Still others are a farmer who is also a 

*A detailed study of the vocational correlates and distinguishing character- 
istics of scientists and nonscientists among the gifted men was made in 1952 under 
the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research and has been published in a sepa- 
rate monograph^ and also appeared in an abbreviated version as an article in the 
Scientific Americanos 


government official serving in the Department of Agriculture ; a briga- 
dier general in the United States Army ; and a vice-president and di- 
rector of one of the largest philanthropic foundations. 

Several of the college faculty members listed in Who's Who hold 
important administrative positions. These include an internationally 
known scientist who is provost of a leading university, and a distin- 
guished scholar in the field of literature who is a vice-chancellor at one 
of the country's largest universities. Another, holding a doctorate in 
theology, is president of a small denominational college. Others among 
the college faculty include one of the world's foremost oceanographers 
and head of a well-known institute of oceanography ; a dean of a leading 
medical school ; and a physiologist who is director of an internationally 
known laboratory and is himself famous both in this country and abroad 
for his studies in nutrition and related fields. 

The background of the eight businessmen listed in Who's Who is 
interesting. Only three prepared for a career in business. These include 
the president of a food distributing firm of national scope ; the controller 
of one of the leading steel companies in the country ; and a vice-president 
of one of the largest oil companies in the United States. Of the other 
five business executives, two were trained in the sciences (both hold 
Ph.D.'s) and one in engineering; the remaining two were both lawyers 
who specialized in corporation law and are now high-ranking execu- 
tives. The three men in the diplomatic service are career diplomats in 
foreign service. 

Additional evidence of the productivity and versatility of the men 
is found in their publications and patents. Nearly 2000 scientific and 
technical papers and articles and some 60 books and monographs in the 
sciences, literature, arts, and humanities have been published. Patents 
granted amount to at least 230. Other writings include 33 novels, about 
375 short stories, novelettes, and plays ; 60 or more essays, critiques, 
and sketches ; and 265 miscellaneous articles on a variety of subjects. 
The figures on publications do not include the hundreds of publications 
by journalists that classify as news stories, editorials, or newspaper 
columns, nor do they include the hundreds, if not thousands, of radio, 
television, or motion picture scripts. Neither does the list include the 
contributions of editors or members of editorial boards of scientific, pro- 
fessional, or literary magazines. There have also been a sizable number 
of scientific documents reporting studies in connection with government 


research which are restricted publications. We do not have information 
on the exact number or content of these. 

The foregoing are only a few illustrations of conspicuous achieve- 
ment and could be multiplied many times. They by no means represent 
all of the areas or types of success for there is scarcely a line of creditable 
endeavor in which some member of the group has not achieved outstand- 
ing success. There are men in nearly every field who have won national 
prominence and 8 or 10 who have achieved an international reputation. 
The latter include several physical scientists, at least one biological 
scientist, one or two social scientists, two or three members of the United 
States State Department, and a motion picture director. The majority, 
though not all so outstanding as those mentioned, have been highly suc- 
cessful vocationally from the standpoint of professional and business 
accomplishment as measured by responsibility and importance of posi- 
tion, prestige, and income. 

There is, however, another side to the picture. There are various 
criteria of success, but we are concerned here with vocational achieve- 
ment, and success has been defined as the extent to which the subject 
has made use of his intellectual ability. This calls for a very high level 
of accomplishment since the intellectual level is so high and not all have 
measured up to it vocationally. Although not more than three or 
possibly four men (again women are not included) could be considered 
failures in relation to the rest of the group, there are 80 or 90 men 
whose vocational achievements fall considerably short of the standard 
set by the group as a whole. 

Since the less successful subjects do not differ to any extent in in- 
telligence as measured by tests, it is clear that notable achievement calls 
for more than a high order of intelligence. After the 1940 follow-up a 
detailed analysis was made of the life histories of the ISO most successful 
and 150 least successful men among the gifted subjects in an attempt to 
identify some of the nonintellectual factors that affect life success. The 
results of this study indicated that personality factors are extremely 
important determiners of achievement. The correlation between suc- 
cess and such variables as mental health, emotional stability, and social 
adjustment is consistently positive rather than negative. In this respect 
the data run directly counter to the conclusions reached by Lange- 
Eichbaum in his study of historical geniuses. 24 A number of interesting 
differences between the two sub-groups were brought out but the four 


traits on which they differed most widely were "persistence in the ac- 
complishment of ends/' "integration toward goals," "self-confidence," 
and "freedom from inferiority feelings." In the total picture the great- 
est contrast between the two groups was in all-round emotional and 
social adjustment, and in drive to achieve. This study is fully reported 
in The Gifted Child Grows Up?* 


The careers of the gifted subjects, now in their mid-forties, are 
pretty well set in their present courses. In a very few cases, there are 
no higher rungs on the particular professional or executive ladder they 
have climbed. But for most of the group, advances to greater levels of 
achievement and more important roles can be looked for. Lehman 25 
has shown that the median age at which positions of leadership are 
reached has greatly increased in the last 150 years. In field after field 
the increase has amounted to 8, 10, or even 12 years and numerous 
positions of high-ranking leadership are most likely to be acquired and 
retained from fifty to seventy years of age. Lehman has also shown 
that in nearly all fields of intellectual achievement the most creative 
period is between thirty and forty-five years. But here Lehman is con- 
cerned with quality of achievement. Productivity as measured by quan- 
tity is often greater after forty than before. And regardless of the merit 
of one's work, the peak of recognitions, honors, and earned income is 
usually not reached until the fifties. 

On the basis of Lehman's data as well as on the evidence from their 
own records, the peak of achievement for this group is not yet reached. 
More than half were still under age 45 in 1955 and there was little evi- 
dence of any slackening of pace. Whether the rise in the next 10 years 
will be as steep as that between 1945 and 1955 is doubtful, principally 
for the reason that they are so much nearer the top. The group has 
made tremendous strides in the past ten or fifteen years. This is true 
in every field and in every walk of life. There is almost no one who 
has not improved his status, even though he may still be well below 
the average of the group in terms of realizing his intellectual potential 
in his vocational accomplishments. 

We said some years ago, 36 that only a professed seer would venture 
a statistical forecast of the future achievements of the group. However, 
we did venture some predictions on the basis of the data to 1945, among 
which were the following: 


The peak of recognition for achievement will come much later, probably 
not before another fifteen or twenty years have elapsed. Listings in Ameri- 
can Men of Science may well be doubled by 1960, and listings in Who's Who 
may be trebled or quadrupled by 1970. In the decade 1960 to 1970 there 
should be several times as many holding positions of high responsibility as 
in 1945, and several times as many of national or international reputation 
in their special fields of accomplishment 

These were indeed conservative estimates. Instead of the doubling 
of listings in American Men of Science which was thought might take 
place by 1960, the number has quadrupled, with 77 names (70 men and 
7 women) compared to the 19 men and no women to 1945. The list 
in Who's Who in Americans grown from 5 names (all men) to 33 (31 
men and 2 women), an increase of more than six times rather than the 
trebling or quadrupling cautiously predicted for the still-distant 1970. 

In 1945 probably not more than a half-dozen had a national repu- 
tation, and perhaps one was internationally known. By 1955 several 
dozen at least have become national figures and 8 or 10 are known 
internationally. Moreover, the group now includes three men who have 
been elected to the National Academy of Sciences as compared with 
only one at the earlier date. 

It is hard to say in which fields the greatest advances will take place 
in the next five or ten years. Business will certainly be one, and law 
another. The scientists are probably nearer their peak than are the rest 
of the group but even here there are a number of younger scientists 
with great promise. Regardless of the degree of productivity yet to be 
attained, the number of those winning special honors and distinctions 
will increase. This is true because of the time lag between achievement 
and recognition. Although American Men of Science listings are prob- 
ably now close to their maximum, at least one and possibly two scien- 
tists are so outstanding that eventual election to the National Academy 
of Sciences can be predicted for them. There will undoubtedly be a 
considerable increase in the number of Who's Who biographies but we 
hesitate to estimate the ultimate number. 

There are, however, a few fields, all dependent on special talent, 
in which there has been a lack of outstanding accomplishment. These 
are the fine arts, music and, to a lesser extent, literature. The group 
has produced no great musical composer* and no great creative artist. 

* An exception in the case of musical composer should be noted. This is a man 
of rare creative genius who was not included in the statistics of this report because 
his intelligence level was not definitely established in childhood. He is several years 


Several possessing superior talent in music or art are heading univer- 
sity departments in these fields and have produced some excellent origi- 
nal work, but none seems likely to achieve a truly great piece of creative 
work. There are a number of competent and highly successful writers 
among the subjects but not more than three or four with a high order 
of literary creativity. Perhaps it is not surprising, in view of the rela- 
tively small size of our group, that no great creative genius in the arts 
has appeared, for such genius is indeed rare. In any case these are the 
only major fields in which the achievement of our group is limited. 


Our discussion so far has been concerned with achievement of emi- 
nence, professional status, and recognized position in the world of 
human affairs. But these are goals for which many intelligent men and 
women do not consciously strive. Greatness of achievement is relative 
both to the prevailing patterns of culture and the individual's personal 
philosophy of life ; there neither exists nor can be devised a universal 
yardstick for its measure. The criterion of success used in this study 
reflects both the present-day social ideology and an avowed bias in favor 
of achievement that calls for the use of intelligence. It is concerned with 
vocational accomplishment rather than with the attainment of personal 
happiness. And the record shows that the gifted subjects, in over- 
whelming numbers, have fulfilled the promise of their youth in their 
later life achievements. 

There are other criteria of success and other goals and satisfactions 
in life, however, and in the biographical data blank the gifted men and 
women have expressed their own opinions on what constitutes life suc- 
cess. The final question in the blank was worded as follows : From your 
point of mew, what constitutes success in lijef There was a wide range 
of replies, often overlapping, and frequently a respondent gave more 
than one definition. The definitions most frequently given fall into five 

older than anyone included in the group, and when he was a child no satisfactory 
IQ test had been devised. However, the senior author has followed his develop- 
ment since 1910, when he was 13 years old, and has known him about as intimately 
as any gifted subject tinder observation. He is an eminent musician who has pro- 
duced hundreds of musical compositions, authored two books and scores of arti- 
cles on musical theory ; invented new musical techniques, given recitals throughout 
the United States and Europe ; lectured in leading American universities ; founded 
and edited a musical magazine, and^won recognition as an authority on musicology 
and primitive music. His compositions cover a wide range with respect to type, 
theme, and technique. Many of his productions have been recorded ; several of his 
orchestral selections are played by leading conductors ; ^ and^ some of his briefer 
compositions are famous among musicians because of their 


categories, each noted by from around 40 to 50 percent of the group 
(with the exception of category c} . None of the other definitions of suc- 
cess was mentioned by more than 15 percent, and only two by more than 
10 percent of the subjects. The five most frequently mentioned defi- 
nitions of life success are : 

a. Realization of goals, vocational satisfaction, a sense of achieve- 

b. A happy marriage and home life, bringing up a family satis- 
factorily ; 

c. Adequate income for comfortable living (but this was men- 
tioned by only 20 percent of women) ; 

d. Contributing to knowledge or welfare of mankind; helping 
others, leaving the world a better place ; 

e. Peace of mind, well-adjusted personality, adaptability, emo- 
tional maturity. 

We would agree with the subjects that vocational achievement is not 
the only perhaps not even the most important aspect of life success. 
To many, the most important achievement in life is happiness, content- 
ment, emotional maturity, integrity. Even failure to rise above the 
lowest rungs of the occupational ladder does not necessarily mean that 
success in the truest sense has been trivial. There may have been heroic 
sacrifices, uncommon judgment in handling the little things of daily 
life, countless acts of kindness, loyal friendships won, and conscientious 
discharge of social and civic responsibilities. If we sometimes get dis- 
couraged at the rate society progresses, we might take comfort in the 
thought that some of the small jobs, as well as the larger ones, are being 
done by gifted people. 


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The information blanks used in the 195052 field follow-up and in 
the 1955 survey by mail were S*/2 by 1 1 inches in size. They are repro- 
duced here in small type. The list that follows includes all the blanks 
used at these dates except two : ( 1 ) a 4-page blank titled Information 
About Child which called for developmental data on those offspring 
of the gifted subjects who had been given a Stanford-Bmet test; and 
(2) the Concept Mastery test. 

Blanks reproduced: 

General Information (1950) 
Supplementary Biographical Data 
Data on Rate of Reproduction 
The Happiness of Your Marriage 
Report of Field Worker 
Information Blank (1955) 



Gifted Children Follow-Up 
Stanford University 1950 

Date of filling out this blank.... 


Full name Birthdate Age 

(Married women include maiden name) 

Address Telephone 

Name and address of relative or friend through whom you could be reached if your address should change 

1. Education: Circle highest grade completed. High school 1234 College 1234 Postgraduate 1234 

Since 1940 : College degrees Date(s) College attended 

Special courses taken (extension, business, technical, professional, etc.) 

2. Occupation and earned income (for income report annual salary before income tax deductions). If self-employed (doc- 
tor, lawyer, business owner, etc.) give equivalent of salary, i.e., income less operating expenses. 

Year Profession, job, or position Exact nature of work ^M^v^"" 6 

1947 . 
1949 . 
Approximate current income from other sources (investments, trust funds, other assets) 

3. Marital status (check) single ; married ; widowed ; separated ; divorced 

Date of marriage Your age at marriage: Years Months 

If this or a previous marriage ended in divorce, give date(s) 

4. About your spouse: Name (maiden name of wife) Age of spouse at 

marriage: Years Months Highest grade or college year of spouse's schooling 

Diplomas or degrees received What school or college? 

Present occupation Present annual earned income 

His (her) avocational interests or hobbies 

Occupation of his (her) father His (her) mother 

Other information regarding husband (wife) that you think .would be of interest _ 

5. Offspring: 

S Dtt of birth f? ll^VA^tl' Cause of death 


6. Your general health since 1945 : 

a) Physical condition has been: (check) Very good ; good ; fair ; poor ; very poor 

b) Illnesses, accidents, or surgical operations in recent years 


c) Has there been any tendency toward nervousness, worry, special anxieties, or nervous breakdown Date 

and nature of such difficulties 

How handled (psychiatric, psychoanalytic, or medical help, hospitalization, etc.) Give details ..... 
Present condition (free from difficulty, improved, no change, worse, etc.) 

d) Use of liquor (check the statement below that most nearly describes you) 

I never take a drink, or only I am a fairly heavy drinker ; I drink to excess rather frequently 

on rare occasions. but do not feel that it has interfered seriously with my work 

or relationships with others. 

I am a moderate drinker. I 

have seldom or never been -Alcohol is a serious problem. I am frequently drunk and at- 

intoxicated. tempts to stop drinking have been unsuccessful 

If alcohol has been a serious problem, what steps have been taken ? 

7. Have you ever been arrested? (Do not include minor traffic violations) If so, give facts regarding each 

instance, including date, charge made, and disposition o case 

8. List any members of your family (parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters) who have died since 1940. 

Date of death 1 Age at death 1 Caase of death 


9. (a) Occupation of father, if living Special accomplishments, activities, honors, 

or misfortunes of father in last few years - - 

(b) Occupation of mother, if living Special accomplishments, activities, honors, 

or misfortunes of mother in last few years 



10. Your brothers and sisters. Mark with cross (X) any half brothers or sisters. If deceased, mark D after name and give 
age at death. 

Age Amount of education 

Yes or no 

Marrl<d No of ch.ldren 

Living Deceased 

""" '" I 

Have any brothers or sisters been divorced? If so, which (indicate if divorced more than once) 

Special accomplishments, activities, honors, or misfortunes of brothers or sisters in recent years 

11. (a) List your avocational interests or hobbies of recent years (e.g., sports, music, art, writing, collections, gardening, 
woodwork, etc.) Underline each activity once to show moderate interest, twice to show very great interest. 

Special instruction in any of above interests (amount and kind) 

(b) What kind of reading do you prefer? (fiction, biography, poetry, etc.) 

Give illustrations from your reading of the last year 

What magazines do you read fairly regularly? 

12. How regularly do you vote? (check for each kind of election) 

National election: Always Usually Occasionally Rarely Never 

State election: Always Usually Occasionally Rarely Never 

Local election : Always Usually Occasionally Rarely Never 

13. On national issues which of the political parties most nearly represents your leanings ? (check) Democrat Repub- 
lican Socialist Communist Other (specify) 

Have you held political office? (specify) 

Other political activities 

14. Rate yourself on the following scale as regards your political and economic viewpoint (Indicate by cross (X) on the 


Tend to be 


Tend to be 



IS. List memberships in clubs or organizations and offices held (e.g., labor unions, business or professional organizations, 
social clubs, service organizations, etc.) 

16. Record of your service activities (such as scout work, welfare, religious or church work, participation in community 
and civic affairs, P.T.A., etc) Please do not be modest include offices held, etc 

17. Any special honors, citations, awards, election to honor societies, "Who's Who" listings, etc? (specify) . 

18. List your publications since 1940, if any. Give title, date, publisher, and type of materials (e.g., poem, short story, mu- 
sical composition, plays, scientific or critical articles, etc.) If space is insufficient, attach further sheets listing such pub- 
lications. ~ 

19. List other creative work accomplished (e.g., architectural, engineering, inventive, scientific, artistic, dramatic) . Note 
any special recognition - 

20. Give any other significant information regarding yourself or your family which has not been covered in this question- 
naire, e.g. (a) marriage of children and birth of grandchildren ; (b) any special good fortune, accomplishments, or 
change of status ; (c) any misfortunes or disappointments that have seriously affected your life, etc. (If space is inade- 
quate, answer on additional sheet). 


Gifted Children Follow-Up 
Stanford University, 1950-51 

Date of filling blank Age 

(Name to be cut out on this lia) 

Name .. 

(Married women include maiden name) 

Code number... 


Directions. The purpose of this questionnaire is to obtain certain kinds of biographical information that will throw light 
on your personality development and on the factors that may have helped or hindered you in achieving your life goals. The 
information called for is intended to supplement, clarify, and perhaps, in some cases, correct the information I have collected 
from all sources over the many years I have known you. Your point of view regarding certain aspects of your early life on 
which your parents and teachers have reported should be of special value. 

Such information as you are willing to give me is, of course, for my confidential records. As soon as the blank has 
reached me your name at the top of this page will be cut out and a code number will be substituted for it so that no assist- 
ant who tabulates the data for statistical treatment will know the identity of any respondent. 

Experience has shown that most persons can fill out the blank in an hour or less. If the time allowed does not permit 
you to finish, you will be given an extra blank to take home with you which you can return to rne by mail with whatever 
additions or amplifications you wish to make. 


1. Following are several aspects of parent-child relationships. Each trait or attitude is represented by a straight line, the 
two ends of the line being the extremes. Place a cross (x) on the line where you think it should go to describe your re- 
lationships with your parents correctly. The cross does not have to be placed at the small vertical bars ; put it where- 
ever you think it should go. 

Try to view your childhood and youth objectively. It should be remembered that frequently either end of the scale 
might be considered favorable from an independent observer's standpoint ; hence the objective rating should be shown 
even though such a rating might not seem complimentary from your point of view. 

a) To what extent did you admire and want to emulate your parents ? 




Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A Rood deal Moderately 

&) To what extent did you feel rebellious toward your parents? 

A good d 

Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly 

c) To what extent did your parents encourage your efforts toward initiative and independence? 


Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly 

d) To what extent did your parents resist your efforts to achieve normal independence from them? 

Extremely A good deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A good deal Moderately 



e) To what extent did you feel rejected or that your parents' feeling toward you was unsympathetic? 


Extremely A Eood deal Moderately Sl.ghtly Not at all Extremely A good deal Moderately SH K htIy Not at all 

/) To what extent was there a feeling of deep affection and understanding between you and your parents ? 


Extremely A Rood deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A good deal Moderately Slmhtly Not at all 

g) How solicitous were your parents about you ; that is, inclined to "anxious" affection, overprotection, and planning 
for you ? 


Extremely A cood deal Moderately Slightly Not at all Extremely A sood deal Moderately Slightly Not at all 

2. To show what your parents were like in their life as a whole, entirety apart from their relationships toward you or 
their other children, please rate them on the following traits : 

o) How self-confident? 


Extremely More than Avc 

b) How helpful? 


Extremely More than A\erajse Less" than MarfcedK Extreme!} More than Average Less than Markedly 
average lacking average average lacking 

-I h 

c) How domineering? 


Extremely More than Average Less than Markedly Extremely More than Average Leas than Markedly 
average average lacking average average lacking; 

d) How friendly? 



ncly More than Ave 

e ) How intelligent ? 


3. As an adult, do you find yourself becoming more like your father or mother than you were in adolescence ? (check) 
Father Mother In what ways do you seem to be changing toward or away from your parents' person- 
alities or attitudes? - 

4. Additional comments regarding your parents or your relationships with them 


5. Relationships within family : 

a) Was there either unusually close attachment or marked rivalry or jealousy between you and any of your brothers 
or sisters? (check) Attachment ; Rivalry.... ; If present, between whom? 

Effect on you... - 

Was there marked friction ktween any of the members of your family ? If so, which? 

Effect on you 

6. Socio-economic factors : 

a) During your childhood and youth was there much financial difficulty in your home? Finances were: (check) Very 
limited ; Limited ; Adequate ; Abundant 

b) As regards social position, how did your parents compare with the parents of your schoolmates ? (check) Much 

above average ; Somewhat above average ; About average ; Somewhat below average ; 

Much below average 

c) In your elementary and high-school days how successful vocationally did you consider your father? (check) Out- 
standing. ; More successful than average ; About average ; Less successful than average ; 

Quite unsuccessful 

d) Comments: - 

7. Other influences; 

o) What persons other than your immediate family have markedly influenced your personality and development? 

Give age at time and describe.,.. - . 

Has any book or philosophy had a profound influence on you? Give age at time and describe 

8. Your attitude toward religion : 

a) Religious training in childhood and youth : (check) Very strict ; Considerable ; Little ; None 

b) As an adult, to what extent are you religiously inclined? (check) Strongly ; Moderately ; Little 

c ) What is your religious affiliation, if any _ 

d) Comments; 

9. Physical factors: 

o) Characterize the general level of your health during the earlier periods of your life as follows : (check) 

Childhood: Very good Good Fair. Poor Very poor..... 

Adolescence; Very good..... Good Fair Poor Very poor . 

b) Did such factors as physical size, appearance, strength, agility, or physical handicap affect your personality, and 
if so, in what way?~ ..... .. . 

c) What important illnesses or accidents have influenced your personality or attitudes? Explain 

d) How would you rate yourself as to amount of physical energy in recent years? (check) Extremely energetic. 

More energetic and active than average ; Average ; Less energetic and active than average.. . 

Markedly lacking in energy, fatigue very easily 

e} Comments: 

10. Emotional and social factors: 

a) As compared to your friends, to what extent were you interested in succeeding at the following? (Indicate by a 
cross [x] on the line.) 

) Competitive sports 

[ | 

a R e!2 

III 1 

Age 12-20 

i i 

Since age 20 

i i 

je- A (rood Moder- Slightly Not at Ex- A giwd Moder- Slightly 
mely deal alely all tremely deal ately 

Not' at Ex- Agoud Moder- Shu 
alt treraely <iea! ately 

htly Not at 

') Being a leader 


age 12 
1 1 

Age 12-20 


I ! 

Since age 20 
i i 


x- A good Moder- Slightly Not at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly 
mely deal ately all temely deal ately 

Not at Ex- A good Moder- Sins' 
all tremely deal ateiy 

tly Not at 

) Having friends 


age 12 

1 1 

Age 12-20 

! ! 


Since age 20 

1 f 


x. A good Mfider- Slightly Not at E A Rood Moder- Slickly 
mely deal ately all tremely deal ately 

Not at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly Not at 
all tremely deal ately all 

) Making money 

Before age 12 

1 1 ! [ 

Age 12-20 


Since age 20 
f ! 


x- A good Moder- Slightly Not at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly 
mely deal ately all tremely deal ately 

Not at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly Not at 
a! tremely deal ately all 

) Being a social success 

Before asc 12 
I I 1 j j __ ...... 

Affe 12-20 

! 1 

j j 

Since age 20 

! 1 


x- A good Moder- Slightly Not at Ex- A good Moder. Slsgh'tly 
mely deal ately all tremeiy deal ately 

Not 'at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly Not at 
all tremely deal ately all 

) School work 



age 12 
I I 

Age 12-20 
1 1 


Sine* age 20 

1 ! 


x- Aeuod Moder- Slightly Not at Ex- A good Moder- Slightly 
roely deal ately all tremely deal ately 

Nut at Ex- A good Moder- Sligh 
all tremely deal ately 

tly Not at 

) Did you as a 
way did you 
Effect on you 

child or later feel that you were ' 
fed different^ 

different" from your classmates or associates ? If so, in what 

c) In your childhood or adolescence how easy or difficult was it for you to enter into the social and other activities 

of your classmates? (check) Had difficulty in making friends and being accepted ; Average in this respect 

; Very adept socially 



d } Describe any circumstances, personal influences, or events that contributed to your social adjustment or lack of social 
adjustment in childhood and youth 

e) Either in childhood or later, have there been any major problems or marked difficulties related to sex? 

Give age at time and nature of difficulty 

11. Education: 

c) Did your parents encourage you to forge ahead in school, were you allowed to go your own pace, or were you held 
back? (underline) 

&) What was the attitude of your parents toward your schoolwork? (check) Demanded high marks ; En- 
couraged them ; Took them for granted , Showed little concern ; Were not interested 

Comments : , 

f) Did your parents encourage you to go to college? Explain: 

d) Did you have as much schooling as you wanted? If not, explain... 

e) Comments: 

12. Vocation: 

o) What vocation did your parents think you should plan for? ,. 

b) At about what age did you start thinking seriously about your lifework and what vocation(s) appealed to you 
most at that time? ., 

c ) Was there any conflict with your parents regarding your choice of career ? Were you greatly influenced by their 
desires in your choice ? Give details 

d) Other circumstances that influenced your final choice...., 

e) Which of the following best describes your feeling about your present vocation? (check) Deep satisfaction and in- 
terest ; Fairly content ; No serious discontent, but do not find it particularly interesting or satis- 
fying ; Discontented but will probably stick it out ; Strongly dislike and hope to change 

/) If dissatisfied with your vocation, what vocation or vocations do you think would have suited you better? 

g) Comments: 

13. Overview: 

a) On the whole, how well do you think you have lived up to your intellectual abilities 13 (Don't limit your answer to 
economic or vocational success only.) 

(Check) Fully ; Reasonably well ; Considerably short of it ; Far short of it ; Consider my 

life largely a failure ; A total failure 

&) Does your life offer satisfactory outlets for your mental capabilities? If not, explain 

c) Factors which have contributed to your life accomplishment to date : (Check once all of the following that have had 
a definitely helpful effect; double-check those that have been most helpful) 

(1) Superior mental ability ; (2) Adequate education ; (3) Good social adjustment ; (4) Good 

personality ; (5) Good mental stability ; (6) Persistence in working toward a goal ; (7) Good habits 

of work ; (8) Excellent health ; (9) Lucky "chance" factors (specify) ; 

(10) Helpful factors related to other people (e.g., spouse, children, friends, employer, etc.). Explain 

(11) Comments: 

d) Factors which have hindered life accomplishment to date : (check once each thing that has had a definitely hinder- 
ing effect; double-check those that have hindered most). 

(1) Inadequate mental ability ; (2) Inadequate education ; (3) Poor social adjustment ; (4) Pooi 

personality ; (5) Mental instability ; (6) Lack of persistence in working toward a goal ; (7) Poor 

work habits ; (8) Poor health, ; (9) Unlucky "chance" factors (specify) , 

(10) Hindering factors related to other people (e.g., spouse, children, friends, employer, etc.). Explain 

(11) Comments: , 

e) From what aspects of your life do you derive the greatest satisfaction? (Check once those you regard as important, 
double-check those most important.) 

Your work itself ; Recognition for your accomplishments ; Your income ; Your avocational activities 

or hobbies ; Your marriage ; Your children...,-. ; Religion ; Social contacts ; Community service 

activities. ; Other 

/) From your point of view, what constitutes "success" in life? 



14. Self-ratings on personality traits : 

Instructions: Please rate yourself on all of the following traits. For each trait place a cross (x) on the line at the 
place you think it should go to describe you correctly as an adult. 

Try to view yourself objectively. Don't hesitate to rate yourself toward the extreme if that is where you belong. 
The extremes do not necessarily represent clear-cut faults or virtues. Try not to think of the traits in terms of 
"good" or "bad." 

o) How happy is your temperament 

I have an Have a more Usually less happy 
extraordinarily happy disposition than others would be 
happy and joyous than the average Average m the same 
temperament /' person m this respect circumstances 

Am strongly inclined 
to look 01 tV 
dark side of things 
and to be unhappy or 

v ' \ / 

&) Are you moody? A 


My moods are 

decidedly changeable; 

I don't have moods. , ,, . 
I always feel about My moods are . Average My moods are 
the same relatively permanent m this respect rather cnangeawe 

alternate between 

extreme sadness,, 


,,,,"' A 


c] How impulsive are you ? 

yr ' 

,- * v > 

Rather imoulsiv;: 

Am trShfnf WS: Am more deliberate UlSSriSffiS? 
wttbortcmudenagit wd IKS impulsive , Avenge because of npulve 
from every angle than the average in this respect action 

| r-| 

Extremely impulsive, 
alw.ijs ruining headlong 
into thinRs 




d) How self-confident are you? 


Extremely self-confident; , ., ,, . 
thtn R s that would cause Nearly always Less self-confident 
tension and anxiety confident of myself. *> the aver aw; 
in most people more so than the , Average am inclined to 
never worry me average person '" this respect borrow, trouble 
I . 

Extremely lacking 
in self-confidence; 
suffer Rreatly from 
anxiety and 
.__ | - 




e) How emotional are you? 

Am extremely Hnemotional, I tend to be 
even in situation-! which unresponsive to 
arouse strong emotions situations of an Aver 
in others emotional nature in this r 

Have a tendency to 
age become over-emotional 
espcct on occasion 

Am over-emotional 

to an extreme 

1 ' X . , -^ 

/) To what extent do you conform to authority and the conventions? 

No tendency whatever 
to resent or criticize 
or in the form of Less resentfnl Average Am more rebellious 
conventions than the avera K e in this respect than the avera B e 
I I __ 1 

Am inclined to be 
extremely antagonistic 
toward authority and 

1 - 1 H^ 
V" ^ 
g) In general, how easy are you to get on with? 


Extremely good natured, 
alw^ld SeW Am easier to * on with Am harde: ; ta , gel : on with 
kind of quarrel or than the average Average than the average 
altercation person in this respect person 

i _ . . ...-'..,. ,_ |- _ _. 

Am rather inclined to be 
irritable, quarrelsome, or 
resentful at slight 
provocation^ N 

h) How much do you enjoy Social contacts? ' 


Am socially minded 
to an extreme; 

Am definitely, unsocial; 
prefer to work and play 
alone; refuse to be drawn 

prefer^be^wfth people More socially minded Averase Less socially minded 
most of the time than the average in this respect than the average 

into group activities when 
I can possibly avoid them 

. 1 


t) How persistent are you in the accomplishment of your ends? 


I won't give up; Am more persistent 


Less persistent 
than the average 

Very easily deterred by 
obstacles; give up in the 
face of even trivial 

every d 

fficulty person 

m this respect 





/" ' 


v t i 

/) Do you have a program with definite purposes in terms of which you apportion your time and energy? 

My life is completely 
integrated toward a 
' ' tegoal 


I have a well-established 
plan for my life and 
usually keep to it 


Aw inclined to drift and 

to be satisfied with just 

"getttn* by" . ' 

Drift entirely; 

no definite life plan; 

leave everything to 


k) How sensitive are your feelings? 

Extremely lacking in 
sensitiveness; thick-skinned; 
almost impossible to 
hurt my feelings 

! - - 

Less sensitive 
than the average 

in this respect 

More sensitive 
than the average 

Extremely sensitive 
and tain-skinned. 
Many things hart me 
that others would not 

, 1 

/) To what extent have you suffered from feelings of inferiority? 

Have rarely or never been 

conscious of such feelings ; 

I have a feeling of adequacy 

which almost never , a 

deserts m ' 

Have probably suffered 

less from this cause 

than the average 


Have probably suffered 

more from this cause 

than the average 

Inferiority feelings have 

been the bane of my life; 

have suffered agonies f rotn 

then and still do 

15. Supplemental data : Will you please add below any further data or explanations that will contribute to an understanding 
of your life to date. 


Gifted Children Follow-up 
Stanford University, 1950-51 

Name of gifted subject 

(Gifted women include maiden name) 

Gifted subject's age Sex (M or F) Date of filling out blank 

Age of spouse Code number of blank 


Explanation. The purpose of this questionnaire is to obtain information on factors which may have influenced the rate of 
reproduction in the gifted group to the present time. Although numerous studies have been made of the number of chil- 
dren born to college graduates and certain other groups, no serious investigation has been made of the jactors which have 
influenced fecundity in a large group of intellectually superior persons. Such data on this group would be of great interest 
to sociologists, psychologists, and students of population trends. 
It will be noted that the questionnaire is divided into two parts ; 


The data will be used for statistical purposes only, and it is hoped that returns can be obtained from as nearly as pos- 
sible 100 percent of the group. The blanks will be kept in a separate confidential file. As soon as each blank is returned 


1. How do you feel now about not having married? (Check one of following) : 

No regret ; Mild regret ; Considerable regret ; Strong regret 

2. Reasons for not marrying : 

(Below are listed numerous possible reasons, each preceded by a dotted line. On the dotted line check once (V) each 
reason that influenced you in any degree. Double check (VV) th e more important reasons in your case. Triple check 
( VW) ^ e one most important reason) 

(1) Feared marriage would interfere with my career 

(2) \rttfZ?... Disappointment in love (unhappy love affair, etc.) 

(3) Responsibility for support of parents or other relatives 

(4) Poor physical or mental health 

(5) Bad heredity in my ancestry 

(6) m .k!L. Little or no interest in physical aspects of sex 

(7) |,^^*/Positive dislike of physical aspects of sex 

(8) ....irfi.JU-r' Preference for companionship of my own sex 

(9) JU^-L^ Feelings of antagonism toward the opposite sex 

(10) Parental opposition to my getting married 

(11) Strong attachment between me and my father 

(12) -i/.|/'... Strong attachment between me and my mother 

(13) Marital unhappiness of my parents 

(14) Just never found the right person 

(15) Other reasons (specify) 




1. Number of offspring : 

(a) How many children have been born to you (live births) ? _. 

(&) Number of children deceased (including still births) ....... 

(c) Number of wife's miscarriages (including both spontaneous and induced) _ 

2. Is the number of children born to you the number you originally wanted or planned to have ? Yes ; No 

If answer is NO, how many did you want or plan for? 

3. If life could be lived over, how many children would you try for? 

4. Menopause status of wife (check) : Menopause not yet started ; Has begun but is not over ; Is apparently 


5. Duration of marriage (if more than one, give data separately for each) : 


Your *pouse* age then 

If narri**e ended, indicate how. (Deatiof 
tpoosc, divorce, or separation) 

If narroiK ended, rive dtte 
(Yr. &o.) 

First marriage 

Second marriage 

Third marriage 

6. Give for each marriage the approximate number of months you and your spouse were away from each other for any 
reason, such as war, long trips, impending break-up of the marriage, etc. Do not count any single separation that lasted 
less than six months. 

First marriage . * Second - - ', Third 

7. Extent to which you and/or your spouse have practiced birth control (check) : 

Never ; Rarely and only for brief periods ; Regularly for one or two years only ; Regularly for 

more than two years ; Approximate number of years during which birth control methods were regularly used 

(that is, total of all such periods in your married life, counting all marriages if there were more than one) : 

8. If birth control methods were never used, or only for very brief periods, give reason (or reasons) why they were not. 


9. Reasons for any birth control practised for as much as one year (check once each reason that operated in any degree, 
double check all important reasons, and triple check the one most important reason) : 

To space pregnancies at appropriate intervals .......... ; Inadequate income .......... ; Housing difficulties .......... ; Husband's 

health __________ ; Wife's health .......... ; Wife's preference for career .......... ; Necessary for wife to work in order to supple- 

ment husband's income .......... ; Wife's dislike of pregnancy or fear of childbirth .......... ; Uncertainty due to war or 

threat of war .......... ; Bad heredity on one or both sides .......... ; Unhappiness of the marriage .......... ; Husband no de- 

sire for children .......... ; Wife no desire for children .......... ; Other reasons (specify) ...................................................... 

10. Did any pregnancies occur because of failure of birth control methods that were being used? .......... ; If so, how many? 

11. Has it happened that a child was born to you after you had decided that your family was as large as you wanted? 
Yes ; No If answer is Yes, how may times did this occur? 

12. Has it happened that over a long period of time, when you and your spouse neither practised abstinence nor used 

any birth control measures, no pregnancy resulted? Yes ; No If answer is yes, indicate the approximate 

date (or dates) during which conception failed to occur : 

From to ; From to ; From to 

What do you think was the reason that no pregnancy occurred during such periods? 

13. Have you or your spouse ever consulted a doctor to find out why pregnancy failed to occur? Husband has ; 

Wife has ; Neither What was the doctor's opinion about failure of pregnancy to occur? 

His opinion about husband - 

His opinion about wife , , 

14. (a) How many siblings (i.e., brothers and sisters) have you had? (Include both living and deceased ; also include half 

brothers and sisters) 

(b) How many siblings has your spouse had, reckoned in same way? 

(c) If your present marriage is not your first, give the number of siblings each previous spouse had 


15. (a) Your religion (check): Catholic ; Protestant ; Other ; None 

(b) Your spouses's religion : Catholic ; Protestant ; Other ; None 

(c) If this marriage is not your first, state religion of each previous spouse 

16. The happiness of your marriage : 

(a) Do you and your spouse engage in outside interests together? (check) AH of them ; Most of them ; 

Some of them ; Very few of them ; None of them 

(&) Do you ever regret your marriage? (check) Frequently ; Occasionally ; Rarely ; Never 

(r) Have you ever seriously contemplated either separation or divorce? (check) Yes No 

(<f) Can you truthfully say that your spouse never does or says anything that irritates or bores you in the slightest? 

(check) Completely true ; Almost completely true ; Questionable ; Untrue 

(e) Can you truthfully say that when you have any unexpected leisure you always prefer to spend it with your spouse? 
(check) Completely true ; Almost completely true ; Questionable ; Untrue 

(/) Everything considered, how happy has your marriage been? (check) Extraordinarily happy ; Decidedly 

more happy than the average ; Somewhat more happy than the average ; About average ; Per- 
haps a little less happy than the average ; Definitely less happy than the average ; Extremely un- 

(g) How well mated are you and your spouse from the strictly sexual point of view? (check) No two could be more 

perfectly mated sexually ; Extremely well mated ; Reasonably well ; Not well ; Very 



Gifted Children Follow-up 
Stanford University, 1950-51 

Name of person filling out blank .. 

(Name to be cut out on this tine) 

Age of person filling blank Date of filling out blank . 

Sex Code number of blank 



Note: This blank to be filled out by the husbands and wives of gifted subjects. Please be objective and frank. The 
data will be regarded as highly confidential and will be used for statistical purposes only. 


(a) Do you and your spouse engage in outside interests together? (check) All of them ; Most of them ; Some 

of them ; Very few of them ; None of them 

(b) Do you ever regret your marriage? (check) Frequently ; Occasionally ; Rarely ; Never 

(c) Have you ever seriously contemplated either separation or divorce ? Yes No 

(d) Can you truthfully say that your spouse never does or says anything that irritates or bores you in the slightest? 
(check) Completely true ; Almost completely true ; Questionable ; Untrue 

(*) Can you truthfully say that when you have any unexpected leisure you always prefer to spend it with your spouse? 
(check) Completely true ; Almost completely true ; Questionable ; Untrue 

(f) Everything considered, how happy has your marriage been? (check) Extraordinarily happy ; Decidedly more 

happy than the average *, Somewhat more happy than the average ; About average ; Perhaps a 

little less happy than the average ; Definitely less happy than the average ; Extremely unhappy 

(0) How well mated are you and your spouse from the strictly sexual point of view ? (check) No two could be more per- 
fectly mated sexually ; Extremely well mated ; Reasonably well ; Not well ; Very badly 



Name of subject . . ... 

Name of field worker . ... .. . S*vv - - - 

Informants . . . - 

Address ... . . 

1. Additional education or plans for further study. 

2. (a) Occupation, (b) vocational and avocational interests, (c) recreation, (d) dynamics (drive, consistency of goal, 
satisfaction with goals). 

3. Special abilities: Nature, degree of success. 

4. Attitude of subject toward gifted study, own giftedness, school acceleration, etc., leading possibly into discussion of 
inferiority feelings (if any), feelings of adequacy and confidence, aspirations, etc. 

5. Intellectuality of interests; impression of cultural level. 

6. Health, nervous tendencies, emotional adjustment. 

7. Marital status. Include education, occupation, and personality of spouse. 

8. Family constellation. Include parents, offspring and others in household. 

9. Home, neighborhood, other evidences of socio-economic status, including financial worries. 
10. Special notes and comments. Total impression. 

[Here followed two and one-half pages of ruled space for the field worker's 
report on the ten items above.] 



12345 1. Appearance 


12345 2. Attractiveness 


12345 3. Poise 


12345 4. Speech 


12345 5. Vanity 


12345 6. Alertness 


12345 7. Friendliness 


12345 8. Loquacity 


12345 9. Frankness 


12345 10. Attention 


12345 11. Curiosity 


12345 12. Originalky 12345 



Gifted Children Follow-up 
Stanford University, 1955 

Date of filling: out this blank 


Full name Age at last birthday 

(Married women include maiden name) 

Address Telephone 

1. Education: List any courses taken and degrees or certificates received since 1950: 

2. Occupation and earned income (for income report annual salary before income tax deductions). If self-employed (doc- 
tor, lawyer, business owner) give equivalent of salary, i.e., income less operating expenses. 

Year Profession, job, or position Exact nature of work I Earned income per year 




3. Approximate annual income, if any, of self and spouse from sources other than earnings 

4. Any special honors, awards, offices held in clubs or organizations, biographical listings, etc. (specify) 

5. Marital status (check) Single Married Widowed Separated Divorced 

Date of marriage If this, or previous marriage ended in divorce, give date(s) 

6. About your spouse: Name ~ His (her) age.. 

(Maiden name of wife) 

Highest grade or college year of schooling What school or college? 

Present occupation Present annual earned income 

7. Offspring : (If any grandchildren please attach list with name, sex, and age of each) 

Star DateofWrtli Schoolgrade j age it death Cause of death 

8. Other information regarding your spouse or children that you think would be of interest 


9. Special accomplishments, honors, or misfortunes among near relatives (parents, brothers, sisters) since 1950. If any 
deceased, give date and cause of death 

10. Your general physical health since 1950 : (underline) very good good fair poor very poor . 

Illnesses, accidents or surgery in recent years 

After effects .. 

11. Has there been any tendency toward nervousness, special anxieties, emotional difficulties, or nervous breakdown ? .. 
Date and nature of such difficulties 

How handled (medical or psychiatric help, hospitalization, etc.) Give details . 
Present condition (free from difficulty, improved, no change, worse, etc.) 

12. Add any further significant information regarding yourself or your family which has not been covered above or for which 
the space provided was inadequate. Also list here any publications, patents, or other creative work since 1950. 


Abilities : compared with generality, 9, 
16 ; degree of unevenness, 9, 16 ; early 
indications of, 8; versatility shown 
in occupations and avocations, 106, 
107 ff. ; see also Special abilities 

Acceleration in school, see School ac- 

Achievement quotients : as related to 
amount of schooling, 9 ; compared 
with control group, 9 ; see also Edu- 
cational histories 

Achievement tests : 1921-22, 5, 8 f. ; 
1928, 17 

Achievement to 1955 : 

appraisal of : educational achieve- 
ments, 71 f., 144 ; vocational achieve- 
ments, 106, 145 ff. 

biographical listings: of men, 146 f.; 
of women, 145 ; increase in, 149 f. 

compared with generality, 145 i. 

illustrations of achievement : men, 
83 ff., 146 1, 150 f. ; women, 88 ff., 145 

outlook for future achievement, 
149 ff. 

personality factors as determiners of 
achievement, 148 f. 

Sec also Success 

Adjustment general, 28, 35 ff., 1481; 
sec also Mental health and general 

Alcoholism, 21, 28, 143; as a mental 
disorder, 40 ; definition, 45 ; incidence 
compared with generality, 45 f. ; rat- 
ings on use of liquor, 44 f. ; sex dif- 
ference in, 50 f. ; subjects hospital- 
ized, 40 

American Men of Science: 145 f., 150; 
listings of men, 146 ; listings of wom- 
en, 88, 145 ; listing as indication of 
achievement, 145 f. 

Analogies test, 52, 55 

Anderson, E. E., 153 

Anderson, J. E., 153 

Anthropometric measurements, 5, 6, 8, 

Army Alpha Test, subjects selected 

by, 3 
A vocational interests, 107 ff. ; 117; as 

related to special abilities, llOff. ; 

number of, 107 ff. ; reading, 109 ; 

leading hobbies, 108 f. ; as related to 

age, 107 f.; sex differences in, 108; 

see also Special abilities 

Background of study : origin and pur- 
pose, vii ff. ; plan of research, 1 ff. 
Ballin, Marian, xiii 
Bayley, Nancy, xii, 61, 153 
Buchholtz, Shiela, xiii 
Bunzel, B.. 44, 153 
Burks, Barbara S., 153 

Cady, V. M. f 11, 153 

Careers of men and women, 73 ff . ; see 
also Occupational status 

Carnegie Corporation, v 

Cattell, Jacques, 153 

Character tests: scores of gifted and 
control subjects, 5, 11 f., 16 

Ciocco, Antonio, 153 

Columbia Foundation, v 

Commonwealth Fund, v, viii, 1 

Community service: 107, 115f. ; recog- 
nition and honors, 115 

Composite portrait of typical gifted 
child, 1922, 15 f.; 1927-28, 18 f. 

Concept Mastery scores : as related to 
Binet IQ, 57 ff., 143 f. ; as related to 
education, 57 ff . ; as related to mar- 
riage and divorce, 135 ; as related to 
mental health and general adjust- 
ment, 49 f . ; as related to radicalism- 
conservatism, 125 f ., 131 ; method of 
equating Forms A and T scores, 61 f. ; 
of spouses compared with college 
groups, 138; of subjects and spouses, 
56 f . ; of various groups tested, 60 ; 
sex differences, 57; test-retest com- 
parisons, 61 ff., 142 ff. ; see also Con- 
cept Mastery test ; Intelligence 




Concept Mastery test, 23, 24, 25, 27, 
52 ff,, as affected by schooling, 53 ; 
correlation between Forms A and T, 

55 f. ; description of, 52 ff. ; Form A 
compared with Form T, 54 f. ; groups 
tested, 59 1 ; normative data, 59 ff . ; 
reliability and validity, 54 f. ; score 
distributions of subjects and spouses, 

56 f. ; sec also Concept Mastery 

Co-operation of subjects, xi, 20, 21, 25 f. 
Cox, Catharine M., xi, 153 
Crime and delinquency, 28, 46, 51 

Data on Rate of Reproduction blank, 
23, 24, 27, 172 fi. 

Davis, Kingsley, 153 

Delinquency, 21 ; sec also Crime and de- 

Directory of American Scholars, 145, 
146 ; listings of men, 146 f. ; listings 
of women, 145; listing as indication 
of achievement, 145 1 

Divorce : incidence of, 133 ff. ; as re- 
lated to education, 133 f. ; as related 
to general adjustment rating, 135 ; as 
related to intelligence, 135 ; as related 
to scores on Marital Happiness Test, 
135 f. 

Doyle, Babette, xiii 

Dublin, L. L, 28, 31, 32, 44, 139, 153 

DuBois, Cornelius, 153 

Early development, see Physical his- 

Education of gifted children, contribu- 
tions to, xii, 72 

Educational histories : 

acceleration, 8, 21, 22, 72 

achievement quotients, 9 

achievement tests, 1922, 81; 1928, 17 

age at completing high school, 72 

age at entering school, 8 

age at learning to read, 8 

amount of education compared with 
parents' attitude toward college at- 
tendance, 71 

amount of education, 64 ff. 

amount of education as related to : 
divorce, 133 f. ; education of parents, 
71; income (men), 941; income 

(women), 981; intelligence, 57 ff.; 
marriage, 133 ; radicalism-conserva- 
tism, 122 

college grades, 67 f. 

college graduation, 64 ff. 

college graduation compared with 
generality, 65 

educational record appraised, 71 1, 

failures in college, 68 

graduate study and degrees, 65 ff. 

graduate study compared with gen- 
erality, 66 f . 

graduation honors, 67 f. 

major fields of study, 68 

school achievement, 1928, 18 

schooling of parents, 6, 71 

subject's opinion on amount of school- 
ing, 69 

subject's report on parents' attitude 
toward schooling, 70 1 

See also School acceleration 

Family background of subjects, 51; 
see also Parents 

Fertility: 1391; of group to 1945, 22; 
as related to age of gifted women, 
140 ; as related to age of wives of 
gifted men, 140; see also Offspring 

Field workers, xii, 56; reports of, 17, 
20 1, 26, 45, 177 1 

Follow-ups : 

1927-28, 17ff.; data obtained, 171; 
summary of findings, 18 f. 

1936, 191 

1939-40, 20 ff.; data obtained, 21; 
summary of findings, 21 f. 

1945, 21 ; summary of findings, 21 1 

1950-52, 23 ff.; data obtained, 231; 
inforrnation schedules, 23 

1955, 23 ff. 

Fund for the Advancement of Educa- 
tion, v 

Galton, Francis, 22 

Gebhard, P. H., 154 

General adjustment, see Mental health 

and general adjustment 
General Information Blank, 1950: 23, 

24,27, 44, 107, 114, 119, 160 ff. 



Goldhamer, H., 42, 43, 153 

Goodenough, Florence L, xii, 153 

Happiness of Your Marriage Blank, 
24, 27, 135 1, 176 

Havemann, Ernest, 79, 80, 98, 117, 133, 
134, 154 

Health history, 6 ff. ; 1928, 18 ; sec also 
Physical health 

Height : reported by subjects, 1940, 34; 
see also Anthropometric measure- 

Henry, A. F., 32, 154 

Hirning, Alma L., 154 

Hirning, J. L., 154 

Hobbies, see Avocational interests 

Homosexuality, 21, 47 if., 51, 143 

Income, earned : 

of men, 93 ff. ; as related to age, 93 
f . ; as related to education, 94 f . ; as 
related to opinion on extent abilities 
lived up to, 104 ; as related to radi- 
calism-conservatism, 1241; as re- 
lated to vocational satisfaction, 104 ; 
as a source of satisfaction, 105; by 
occupation, 95 ff. ; comparison with 
generality, 97 f . 

of women, 98 f . ; as related to educa- 
tion, 98 f. ; as related to radicalism- 
conservatism, 125 ; as a source of 
satisfaction, 105 ; by occupation, 99 

Income: total family, lOOf. ; compared 
with generality, 100 1 ; as related to 
radicalism- conservatism, 125 

Information About Child blank (off- 
spring), 23, 24 

Information Blank, 1955 : 24, 27 ff. 

Information obtained : 

1921-23, 4ff. 

1927-28, 17 f. 

1936, 19 f. 

1939-40, 21 


1950-52, 23 ff. 

1955, 24 ff. 

Information schedules reproduced: 
157 ff. 

Data on Rate of Reproduction, 172 ff. 

General Information (1950), 160 ff. 

The Happiness of Your Marriage, 

Information Blank (1955), 179f. 

Report of Field Worker, 1771 

Supplementary Biographical Data, 

Intellectual abilities: subjects opinion 
on extent lived up to, 104 f. 

Intellectual status : 

as of 1940, 22, 54; as of 1950-52, 
52 ff. 

compared with general it}', 54, 60 f. 

estimate of changes in: to 1928, 18; 
to 1940, 54; to 1952, 61 ff. 

maintenance of intellectual superior- 
ity, xii, 61 ff. ; 143 1 

Intelligence : 

and amount of education, 57 ff. 

correlation with desirable traits, 142 

maintenance of, 61 ff. ; 143 f. 

of offspring, 141 1 

as related to general adjustment, 49 f. 

as related to marriage, 135 

as related to radicalism-conservatism, 

Sec aho Concept Mastery scores ; In- 
tellectual Status ; Stanford-Binet test 

Intelligence tests : 


1927-28, 171 

1939-40, 52 ff. 

1950-52, 52 ff. 

Interest Blank, for subjects : 


1928, 17 

Interests: avocational, 107ff. ; reading 
interests, 109, 117; versatility of 107 

Interests in childhood, 9 ff. ; in plays 
and games, 10 ; reading interests, 1 1 ; 
scholastic interests, 9 ; vocational in- 
terests, 10; sec also Play interests 

IQ : distribution of IQ's of offspring, 
141 1 ; of subjects when selected, 2 1 ; 
predictive value of, 144; subjects 
with IQ 170 or above, 21, 125 1 ; sec 
alstt Intelligence 

Jellinek, K. M., 46, 154 
Jensen, Dortha \V., 153 
Juvenilia, literary, 181 

Keller, Mark, 46, 154 
Kinsey, A. C, 48, 51, 154 



Labor organizations: activity in, 114; 

membership in, 113 1 
Landis, Carney, 154 
Lange-Eichbaum, Wilhelm, 148, 154 
Lehman, H. C, 149, 154 
Lotka, A. J., 153 

McNemar, Olga \V M xii 

McXemar, Quinn, viii, xiii, 4, 154 

Malzberg, Benjamin, 42 f., 154 

Marital aptitude test, 22 

Marital happiness test, 22, 23, 24, 47, 
135 i. 

Marital selection : 

age difference between spouses, 137 f. 

education of spouses, 58, 137 

intelligence of spouses : 58, 138 ; com- 
pared with college groups, 138 t 

intermarriages in group, 139 

occupational status of spouses, 137 f. 

Sec also Marriage 

Marriage : 

age at, 132 

incidence to 1945, 22 

incidence by age to 1955, 132 ff. 

incidence by amount of education, 133 

marital happiness : scores on happi- 
ness test, 135 f. ; rating on happiness 
of marriage, 136; compared with 
generality, 136 

as related to intelligence, 135 

Sec also Divorce; Fertility; Marital 

Marsden Foupdation, v 

Marshall, A., 42, 43, 153 

Marshall, Helen, xii 

Martin, C. E., 154 

Medical examinations, 4 f., 7 f., 34 

Memberships in clubs and organiza- 
tions, 107, 112, 117; kinds of, 113; 
number of, 112 

Mental adjustment, sec Mental health 
and general adjustment 

Mental deficiency, among offspring of 
subjects, 142 

Mental disease: 21, 28 

age at hospitalization, 41 

definition of, 41 f. 

diagnosis of illness, 40 

expectancy of, 42 f. 

incidence compared with generality, 
41 ff. 

length of hospitalization, 39 f. 

number hospitalized, 37 ff. 

recovery from, 38 ff. 

subjects hospitalized, 37 ff. 

Sec also Alcoholism ; Suicide 

Mental health and general adjustment, 
xii, 28, 35 ff., 143 

basis for ratings, 35 

definition of ratings, 35 f. 

incidence of mental disease, 21, 37 ff. 

mental disease defined, 41 f . 

ratings on mental health and general 
adjustment, 36 ff. 

as related to education, 49 f . 

as related to intelligence, 49 f. 

as related to marital status, 135 

as related to radicalism-conservatism, 
126 f. 

Sec also Alcoholism ; Delinquency ; 
Homosexuality ; Mental disease, Sui- 

Merrill, Maud A., 154 

Minnesota Occupational Scale, 73, 80, 
81, 87, 137 

Mortality, 24, 28 ff. ; age at death, 29 ; 
causes of, 29 f . ; compared with gen- 
erality, 29 ; education of deceased 
subjects, 32 f. ; incidence of, 29; IQ 
of deceased subjects, 32; mental ill- 
ness among deceased subjects, 38 ff . ; 
occupation of deceased subjects, 33; 
suicides, 30 ff. 

Murphy, J. V., 153 

National Academy of Sciences : elec- 
tions to, 146, 150 

National Intelligence Test, 2, 3, 4 ; sub- 
jects selected by, 2 f. 

National Research Council, v 

Nervous disorders, sec Mental health 
and general adjustment 

Norris, Dorothy, 155 

Occupational classification, sec Minne- 
sota Occupational Scale, also Occu- 
pational status 

Occupational status : 

appraisal of, 106, 144 ff. 

gifted men : as of 1955, 73 ff, ; break- 
down of occupational groups, 74 ff. ; 
classification of occupations, 73 f. ; 
compared with generality of male 


college graduates, 79 ff . ; illustrations 
of occupations, 77 ff. ; occupational 
changes between 1940 and 1955, 
81 ff. ; as related to income, 95 f. ; as 
related to radicalism-conservatism, 

gifted women : as of 1955, 85 ff. ; ac- 
cording to education, 86 ; according 
to marital status, 85 f. ; breakdown of 
occupational groups, 87 f. ; classifica- 
tion of occupations, 87; illustrations 
of careers, 88 ff. ; as related to in- 
come, 99 f. ; as related to opinion on 
how well intellectual abilities lived up 
to, 104 f. ; as related to radicalism- 
conservatism, 124 

Sec also Achievement to 1955 ; Voca- 

Occupations, childhood preferences, 10 ; 
sec also Occupational status 

Oden, Melita H., vii, 61, 153, 155 

Offspring : incidence of twins, 140 ; in- 
telligence of, 141 f. ; number of, 139 ; 
number according to education, 
140 f, ; number of adoptions, 142 ; 
number of deaths, 140; number of 
grandchildren, 142; sex ratio, 139 f.; 
sec also Fertility 

Page, J. D., 154 

Parents : education of, 6, 71 ; home li- 
brary, 6; income of, 6; listings in 
ll'ho's Who, 6; occupations of fa- 
thers, 5 f. 

Patents, number awarded to 1955, 88, 
145, 147 

Phi Beta Kappa, 67 f., 144 

Physical defects, 7 f., 34 f. 

Physical health, 6 ff., 28 ff., 143 ; self- 
ratings, 33 ff. 

Physical history : early development, 
7 f . ; birth history, 7 ; sec also Health 

Play information, test of, 10 f. 

Play interests, 16; as measures of in- 
terest maturity, 10; as measures of 
masculinity-femininity, 10 ; as meas- 
ures of sociability, 10 ; test of, 5, 10 

Political and social attitudes : 

party preferences, 127 f. 

political activities, 129 f. ; offices held, 

self-ratings on radicalism-conserva- 
tism, 118 ff. ; as related to age, 121 f. ; 
as related to education, 122 ; as re- 
lated to general adjustment, 126 f. ; 
as related to income, 124 1 ; as re- 
lated to intelligence, 125 f.; as re- 
lated to occupation, 123f. ; as re- 
lated to political preferences, 128; 
comparison of 1940 and 1950 ratings, 
120 f. ; sex differences in, 120 

summarized, 130 f. 

voting habits, 129 

Pomeroy, \V. B., 154 

Pressey Group Test, 4 

Psychological Corporation, 54 

Public offices : election to public office, 
129 f. ; appointive offices held, 1291; 
sec also Political and social attitudes 

Publications, number and kinds : for 
men, 110, 1471; for women. 110, 145 

Racial origin, 5 

Radicalism-conservatism, sec Political 
and social attitudes 

Raubenheimer, A. S.. 11, 12, 154 

Reading, 5 ; age at learning, 8 ; reading 
interests as adults, 109, 117; reading 
interests in childhood, 11 

Religion: affiliations, 116; attitudes to- 
ward, 1161, 118; religious training, 
116; sex differences in membership, 

Reproduction, rate of, sec Fertility 

Rockefeller Public Service Award, 130 

School acceleration, 8, 21, 22, 72; and 
graduate study, 72; as a method of 
providing for the gifted, 72 ; progress 
quotients, 8 1 

Schooling, sec Educational histories 

Scottish investigations, sex differences 
in variability, 4 

Sears, Robert, xiii 

Selection of subjects: procedures used, 
2 ff . ; tests used, 2 ff . 

Semelman, Barbara B., 32 T 154 

Service activities, 107, 114 ff., 118; con- 
tributions to community life, 115; 
memberships in community welfare 
groups, 115; recognitions and honors 
for,l 151 

Sex adjustments, 22, 47 ff. 



Sex differences : in alcoholism, 46, 50 f. ; 
in amount of schooling, 69 ; in avoca- 
tional interests, 108 ; in church mem- 
bership, 1161; in Concept Mastery 
scores, 57 ; in incidence of crime and 
delinquency, 51 ; in incidence of homo- 
sexuality, 51 ; in incidence of mental 
disease, 50 ; in IQ, 3 f . ; in IQ of off- 
spring, 141 f. ; in mortality rate, 34 ; 
in play interests, 10 ; in radicalism- 
conservatism, 120; in ratings on 
health, 34; in relationship of general 
adjustment to education and intelli- 
gence test scores, 51 ; in suicide rate, 
32, 50 ; in vocational goals, 73, 106, 

Sex problems, 28, 46 ff . 

Sex ratio : among subjects, 4 ; of off- 
spring, 139 f. 

Shea, "Alice Leahy, xii 

Short. J.F. Jr., 32, 154 

Siblings, included in gifted group, 2, 6 

Sigma Xi, 67 f., 144 

Social attitudes, sec Political and social 

Social origin, 5 

Spearman, Charles, 52 

Special abilities: 110 ff., 150 i; in art, 
111; in dramatics, 111; in music, 
llOf. ; illustrations of special ability, 
lllf.; as related to vocations and 
avocations, 110 ff. ; writing as an avo- 
cation, 110 

Spiegelman, Mortimer, 153 

Spouses, of gifted, see Marital selec- 

Stanford Achievement Test, 1922, 8 f. 

Stanford-Binet IQ's: changes to 1928, 
18 ; compared with Concept Mastery 
scores, 57 f . ; distributions for off- 
spring, 141 f. ; of subjects, 3; sec also 

Stanford-Binet test, viii, 1 ff., 23, 24, 27, 
61, 141 f.; subjects selected by, 3; 
sec also Stanford-Binet IQ's 

Strong, E. K., 154 

Strong Vocational Interest Blank, 21 ; 

Study : in adult education classes, 67 ; 
in study groups, 109, 117 ; through in- 
dependent reading, 109, 117 

Subjects: basis for selection, 21; co- 
operation of, xi 1, 20, 21, 25 f.; de- 

ceased subjects, 24, 29 ff., 32; effects 
of inclusion in group, 20 ; the group as 
of 1928, 17; the group as of 1940, 
20 i; the group as of 1952, 24; the 
group as of 1955, 24; intermarriages 
among, 139; IQ's of subjects, 3; 
method of selection, 2 f . ; number lost, 
24, 25 ; number of, 3 ; sex ratio among, 
4; siblings and cousins in group, 6; 
proportion living in California, 23, 

Success : differences found in compari- 
son of most and least successful men, 
148 f.; measures of, 145, 148 ff,, 
1511; subjects' opinion of what con- 
stitutes success, 1511; see also 
Achievement to 1955 

Suicide, 30 ff. ; and mental disorder, 
43 f . ; incidence compared with gen- 
erality, 30 ff. ; sex differences in, 32, 

Sullivan, Ellen, xii 

Sumption, M. R., 155 

Supplementary Biographical Data 
blank, 24, 27, 47, 64, 68, 101, 116, 136, 
151, 164 ff. 

Sward, Keith, 53, 154 

Synonym-antonym test, 52, 54 f . 

Terman Group Test, 21; subjects se- 
lected by, 2 i. 

Terman, Frederick E., viii 

Terman, L. M., vii ff., xi ff., 4, 19, 146, 
153, 154, 155 

Thomas Welton Stanford Fund, v 

Thorndike CA VD test, 4 

Trait ratings by parents and teachers, 
12 ff. ; gifted and control groups com- 
pared, 13 ff. 

U.S. Census reports : current popula- 
tion reports, 100, 155; statistical ab- 
stract, 97, 155 

Vocation: as a source of satisfaction, 
105 ; subjects' feelings about, 101 ; vo- 
cational achievements, 106; voca- 
tional satisfaction as related to in- 
come, 104; as related to occupation, 
102 ff. ; see also Occupational status 

Voting habits, see Political and social 



Wallin, Paul, 154 

Wechsler-Bellevue test, 61 

Weight : reported by subjects, 1940, 34 ; 
sec also Anthropometric measure- 

West, Patricia Salter, 80, 98, 117, 133, 
134, 154 

Whittier Scale for Grading Home Con- 
ditions, 6 

irho's Who in America, 145, 146, 147, 
150, 155; listings of men, 1461; list- 

ings of women, 145 ; listing as indica- 
tion of achievement, 145 ff. ; parents 
listed in, 6 

\Volfle,Dael,65,66,71, 155 

Woodbury, R. M., 7, 155 

World Health Organization, definition 
of alcoholism, 45, 46, 50 

Writing : as an avocation, 110 ; sec also 
Avocational interests 

Yearbook of American Churches, 155